Link between facultative melanin and tobacco use among African Americans

@article{King2009LinkBF,
  title={Link between facultative melanin and tobacco use among African Americans},
  author={Gary King and Valerie B. Yerger and Guy-lucien S. Whembolua and Robert B. Bendel and Rick A. Kittles and Eric T. Moolchan},
  journal={Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior},
  year={2009},
  volume={92},
  pages={589-596}
}
Tanning Capacity and Nicotine Dependence Among African Americans.
Nicotine impact on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in HEMn-DP melanocytes
TLDR
The results obtained in vitro may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long-term exposition to nicotine.
Association of cigarette smoking with skin colour in Japanese women
TLDR
Current smokers had higher melanin indices than never-smokers and former smokers for all measured sites and smoking was significantly associated with erythema indices on the inner upper and lower arms.
The effect of simultaneous exposure of HEMn-DP and HEMn-LP melanocytes to nicotine and UV-radiation on the cell viability and melanogenesis.
TLDR
The data suggest that simultaneous exposure of melanocytes to nicotine and UV radiation up-regulates melanogenesis and affects cell viability, and processes are more pronounced in dark pigmented cells.
Sociodemographic, cardiovascular and sleep pattern determinants associated with tobacco
TLDR
It was concluded that individuals with nicotinic dependence had a greater chance of ischemic heart disease and disturbances in sleep behavior in the studied population.
The Association Between E-Cigarette Use Behaviors and Saliva Cotinine Concentration Among Healthy E-Cigarette Users in Malaysia.
TLDR
Multivariate analysis revealed that e-cigarette use of 1-6 and 6-12 months (but not 1 month and below) was significantly associated with a higher cotinine concentration, implying the importance of stringent regulatory governance for the consistency of labeled nicotine content of e-cigarettes liquid in the market.
Measurement of Reduced Gingival Melanosis after Smoking Cessation: A Novel Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs
TLDR
The loss of gingival melanosis after smoking cessation can be objectively confirmed with the use of the GMR, a new quantitative analysis method using clinical oral photographs that showed a significant association with Hedin’s classification.
SHORT COMMUNICATION Can smoking cause melanization of Cryptococcus neoformans in vivo
TLDR
Ability of C. neoformans for melanization using tobacco smoke is reported to substantiate the possible link between smoking and pathogenecity in clinical cryptococcal infections as reported by several researchers.
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The published literature suggests that nicotine may accumulate in human tissues containing melanin and this retention may increase melanin synthesis, and differential accumulation of nicotine in melanin-containing tissues could have implications for individuals with high levels of melanin.
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TLDR
The finding that mean COT/CPD ratio was significantly higher in African-American compared to Caucasian adolescents is consistent with those found among adult smokers and provides a putative mechanism for reported ethnoracial differences in adolescent cigarette consumption.
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The use of menthol may be associated with increased health risks of smoking and should be considered when biochemical markers of smoke exposure are used as quantitative measures of smoking intensity or as indicators of compliance with smoking reduction programs.
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Examination of group differences in the ratio measured in urine and the association between the ratio and multiple measures of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence in a large, national representative sample of young adults found no significant association was found.
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TLDR
Greater nicotine and therefore greater tobacco smoke intake per cigarette could, in part, explain some of the ethnic differences in smoking-related disease risks.
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TLDR
A careful comparison of the spectra of samples prepared both with and without drug indicated the presence of masses corresponding to the protonated drug, melanin oligomers, and nicotine or continine adducts of the monomeric melanin intermediate dopaquinone (DOPAQ).
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The relationship between number of cigarettes consumed and salivary cotinine is more complex than previously believed and researchers and clinicians need to look at race and gender concurrently, as well as type of cigarette consumed.
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Hypermelanocytosis and melanosis were observed in smokers and mild pigmentation was observed away from the site of quid placement with the concurrent increase in the number of melanocytes and melanocytic activity.
Smoker's melanosis may explain the lower hearing loss and lower frequency of Parkinson's disease found among tobacco smokers--a new hypothesis.
TLDR
The preventive influence of smoking found in the cochlea and substantia nigra may also be due to a higher melanin content and to the ability of melanin to strongly bind specific chemical agents for a long time.
The importance of studying visceral melanins
TLDR
The physiologic role of melanin in health and disease has only recently begun to receive intensive study and the largest amount of published work in this field has been carried out by chemists studying the blackening of certain fruits and vegetables.
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