Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance.

  title={Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance.},
  author={David Bassett and Edward T. Howley},
  journal={Medicine and science in sports and exercise},
  volume={32 1},
In the exercising human, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is limited by the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to deliver oxygen to the exercising muscles. This is shown by three major lines of evidence: 1) when oxygen delivery is altered (by blood doping, hypoxia, or beta-blockade), VO2max changes accordingly; 2) the increase in VO2max with training results primarily from an increase in maximal cardiac output (not an increase in the a-v O2 difference); and 3) when a small muscle mass is… 

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VO 2 max makes bridge between aerobic and anaerobic exercise

The basic definition of VO2 is the maximum amount of oxygen your body can use during exercise. VO2 (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic

Maximal oxygen uptake is not limited by a central nervous system governor.

This study does not support the theory, which states that the work of the heart, and consequently VO2 max, during maximal exercise is hindered by a command from the central nervous system aiming at protecting the heart from being ischemic.

Pilot Study on VO2max Assessment and Oxygen Uptake on Normal and Hypoxic Environments

Resume VO2max is a key physiological determinant of an athlete ́s running performance. Howley et al. 1995 defined VO2max as the highest rate at which oxygen can be taken up and utilized by the body

Deciphering V̇O2,max: limits of the genetic approach

It is proposed that multigenetic phenotypes such as V̇O2,max are emergent properties of multiple underlying transcriptomic networks modified by epistasis, the epigenome and the epitranscriptome, inaccessible to being deciphered by gene-based approaches alone.

The individual response to training and competition at altitude

  • R. Chapman
  • Biology
    British Journal of Sports Medicine
  • 2013
Some athletes are clearly more negatively affected during exercise in hypoxia than other athletes, and with careful screening, it may be possible to develop a protocol for determining which athletes may be the most positively affected during competition and/or training at altitude.

Relationship between maximal oxygen uptake and oxygenation level in inactive muscle at exhaustion in incremental exercise in humans.

It is concluded that the oxygenation level in inactive muscle at exhaustion during incremental exercise is associated with an individual difference in Vo2max, which is higher than that at rest and started to decrease at a high power output.

The use of blood-flow restriction to enhance high-intensity endurance performance and skeletal muscle adaptation

The findings from these studies imply that post-exercise BFR does not increase mitochondrial content, but although there was no increase in skeletal muscle capillarity, there were suggestions thatpost-ex exercise BFR could elicit an enhanced angiogenic stimulus when undertaken with higher training volumes and could subsequently increase performance.

Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes.

Overall exercise performance (time trial performance + maximal incremental power output) correlates most strongly to measures regarding the capability for oxygen transport, high Vo(2max) and Hb(mass), in addition to measures of oxygen utilization, maximal oxidative phosphorylation, and electron transport system capacities in the skeletal muscle.

The VO 2 max plateau is not associated with the anaerobic capacity in physically active subjects

Traditionally, maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) has been used to represent the maximum aerobic capacity. Presently, VO 2 max is used as an indicator of cardiorespiratory  tness, running



Integration of the Physiological Factors Determining Endurance Performance Ability

  • E. Coyle
  • Medicine
    Exercise and sport sciences reviews
  • 1995
This model is used to understand the interrelationships of the physiological factors determining endurance performance ability during prolonged exercise and sees that improvements in performance after the first 2-3 yr of intense training are associated with improvements in LT Vo2, whereas Vo2max generally increases very little thereafter.

Oxygen transport during exercise in large mammals. I. Adaptive variation in oxygen demand.

The mechanisms that enable horses to achieve higher maximal rates of O2 consumption (VO2max) than steers are identified and the mechanisms used to achieve it are the same as observed in smaller pairs of mammalian species with large variation in aerobic capacity.

Hemodynamic adaptations to exercise.

  • B. Saltin
  • Medicine
    The American journal of cardiology
  • 1985

Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise: effects on metabolism and performance.

It is theorize that over the course of several hours of strenuous exercise, blood glucose and muscle glycogen contribute equal amounts of CHO energy, making blood glucose at least as important as Muscle glycogen as a CHO source.

Effects of incomplete pulmonary gas exchange on VO2 max.

The data suggest that pulmonary gas exchange may contribute significantly to the limitation of VO2max in highly trained athletes who exhibit exercise-induced reductions in %SaO2 at sea level.

Regulation of lactic acid production during exercise.

It is proposed that the achievement of increased aerobic energy formation under conditions of limiting O2 availability requires increases of ADP, Pi, and NADH and that the increases in ADP (and therefore AMP via the adenylate kinase equilibrium) and Pi will stimulate glycolysis, and the resulting increase in cytosolic NADH will shift the lactate dehydrogenase equilibrium toward increased lactate production.

Maximal oxygen uptake: "classical" versus "contemporary" viewpoints.

The traditional view of VO2max owes a great deal to the work of A. V. Hill, who conducted experiments on exercising man in Manchester, England, in the 1920's. Hill and colleagues proposed that there

Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences.

  • J. HolloszyE. Coyle
  • Biology
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology
  • 1984
The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation, and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity.

Maximal oxygen uptake: "old" and "new" arguments for a cardiovascular limitation.

The research performed over the last 100 yr in regard to oxygen transport during exercise is reviewed. Special focus is on major shifts in views held on which link may limit maximal oxygen uptake of

Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary.

Historically, the achievement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has been based on objective criteria such as a leveling off of oxygen uptake with an increase in work rate, high levels of lactic acid in the blood in the minutes following the exercise test, and achievement of some percentage of an age-adjusted estimate of maximal heart rate.