Limited directed seed dispersal in the canopy as one of the determinants of the low hemi-epiphytic figs’ recruitments in Bornean rainforests

  title={Limited directed seed dispersal in the canopy as one of the determinants of the low hemi-epiphytic figs’ recruitments in Bornean rainforests},
  author={Miyabi Nakabayashi and Y. Inoue and Abdul Hamid Ahmad and Masako Izawa},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
Ficus species are keystone plants in tropical rainforests, and hemi-epiphytic figs play a notably important role in forest ecosystems. Because hemi-epiphytic figs have strict germination requirements, germination and establishment stages regulate their populations. Despite the ecological importance of hemi-epiphytic figs in the rainforests, seed dispersal systems by fig-eating animals under natural conditions remain unknown because of the difficulty in tracing the destiny of dispersed seeds in… 

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