Corpus ID: 146126194

Likert Data: What to Use, Parametric or Non-Parametric?

  title={Likert Data: What to Use, Parametric or Non-Parametric?},
  author={Jacqueline Murray},
The objective of the study was to determine whether the type of statistical tests conducted on Likert scale data affect the conclusions. Pearson, Spearman rho and Kendall tau_b analyses conducted on actual scale data revealed that there was a positive relationship between all the permuted pairs of the variables at the p<.05 level. However the relationship between the variables indicated a weak relationship for all of the tests except for the relationship between the constructs academic self… Expand

Tables from this paper

Evaluating the Interdependent Effect for Likert Scale Items
The Spearman Rank Order Correlations of Likert scale items were explored as a consistent replacement of subjective group direct-influence matrix and revealed improvement scopes by defining causal relationships and significance of the questions of the survey, and added value for long-term strategic decision making. Expand
Robust Method for Testing the Significance of Bivariate Correlation of Ordinal Data
The Tau’s statistics were introduced to solve the problems of tied data but its effect on shape of table cannot be ascertained. This study compares the non parametric approaches for testing theExpand
Designing, Constructing, and Analyzing Likert Scale Data
In most of the Likert scale studies that have been carried out so far, there is some confusion or disagreement with how to design, construct, and analyse its data. Expand
Some Thoughts about the Suitability of the Reliable Change Index (RCI) for Analysis of Ordinal Scale Data
The reliable change index (RCI) was introduced approximately 30 decades ago in order to provide an empirical, statistically grounded technique for determining whether improvement after a therapeuticExpand
Using Likert Type Data in Social Science Research: Confusion, Issues and Challenges
The purpose of this article is to analyze the prevailing confusions, issues and challenges regarding using of Likert type data in social science research. Review of scholarly works specificallyExpand
Investigation Into the Effects of Using Normal Distribution Theory Methodology for Likert Scale Patient-Reported Outcome Data From Varying Underlying Distributions Including Floor/Ceiling Effects.
Simulations confirm that the sampling distribution of the mean rapidly approaches normality and appropriate tests provide adequate coverage and type I error, and suggest t tests should be implemented with few restrictions. Expand
A Correlational Analysis of Test Anxiety and Response Time on a Computerized Adaptive Math Test among Seventh Grade Students by Gender.
Studies have shown that test anxiety has become more prevalent since the adoption of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 and that test anxiety negatively affects student achievement. Early researchExpand
Adolescents' Self-determination To Regulate Eating Behaviors: Adaptation And Validation Of A Self-report Measure.
The aim of this study was to adapt a measure of eating behavior regulation developed for use with adult females, the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale (REBS), for use with mixed-gender,Expand
Objectivism and subjectivism: cross-national variation in values and domain-life satisfaction relationships
There have been many attempts to ascertain the predictors of wellbeing. The goal of this thesis is not to evaluate individual theories but to challenge the assumptions that underlie them. Expand
Student Stress and Academic Satisfaction: A Mixed Methods Exploratory Study
Student satisfaction has implications for student academic success, engagement, and retention within their programs. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between three levels ofExpand


Likert scales, levels of measurement and the “laws” of statistics
  • G. Norman
  • Mathematics, Medicine
  • Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice
  • 2010
It is shown that many studies, dating back to the 1930s consistently show that parametric statistics are robust with respect to violations of these assumptions, and parametric methods can be utilized without concern for “getting the wrong answer”. Expand
Analyzing Ordinal Scales in Studies of Virtual Environments: Likert or Lump It!
An ad hoc method is suggested to deal with lumpy Likert scaled data which can involve a further lumping of the results followed by the application of nonparametric statistics. Expand
Resolving the 50‐year debate around using and misusing Likert scales
Most recently in this journal, Jamieson outlined the view that ‘Likert scales’ are ordinal in character and that they must be analysed using non-parametric statistics, which are less sensitive and less powerful than parametric statistics and are more likely to miss weaker or emerging findings. Expand
Use and misuse of Likert scales
  • G. Pell
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Medical education
  • 2005
The issues of the appropriate statistical models for parametric data and non-parametric data have been around for at least 50 years, but the real issue is not between analytical techniques, but in properly understanding the nature of the analyses, and the resulting inferences. Expand
The Level of Measurement and “Permissible” Statistical Analysis in Social Research
The debate between Henkel (1975b) and Labovitz (1975a) is of academic interest but does not provide any clear conclusion of the adequacy of treating ordinal data as interval ones. Expand
Likert scales: how to (ab)use them
I have recently used Likert-type rating scales to measure student views on various educational interventions, providing a range of responses to a given question or statement. Expand
Statistics II for Dummies
Introduction. Part I: Tackling Data Analysis and Model-Building Basics. Chapter 1: Beyond Number Crunching: The Art and Science of Data Analysis. Chapter 2: Finding the Right Analysis for the Job.Expand
Ten Common Misunderstandings, Misconceptions, Persistent Myths and Urban Legends about Likert Scales and Likert Response Formats and their Antidotes
A recent article by Jamieson in Medical Education outlined some of the (alleged) abuses of "Likert scales" with suggestions about how researchers can overcome some of the (alleged) methodologicalExpand
Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 3rd Ed
  • Upper Saddle Reiver,
  • 2008
Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research
  • 2001