Lightning Strike Fusion: Extreme Reduction and Metal-Silicate Liquid Immiscibility

  title={Lightning Strike Fusion: Extreme Reduction and Metal-Silicate Liquid Immiscibility},
  author={E. Essene and D. C. Fisher},
  pages={189 - 193}
A glassy fulgurite, formed recently on a morainal ridge in southeastern Michigan, contains micrometer- to centimeter-sized metallic globules rich in native silicon, which unmixed from a silica-rich liquid. The unusual character of these globules and their potential for elucidating conditions of fulgurite formation prompted further study. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that temperatures in excess of 2000 K and reducing conditions approaching those of the SiO2-Si buffer were needed to form… Expand
Ultra-high pressure and ultra-reduced minerals in ophiolites may form by lightning strikes
doi: 10.7185/geochemlet.1744 Since ultra-high pressure (UHP) minerals have been discovered in ophiolites from Tibet and the Polar Urals, it is speculated that the mantle sections of ophiolites mayExpand
The Elusive Evidence of Volcanic Lightning
Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current. Expand
Lightning-induced weathering of Cascadian volcanic peaks
Abstract The process of meteorological lightning-induced modification of coherent volcanic rocks is examined by geochemical, textural, and experimental analysis of fulgurites from South SisterExpand
The response of zircon to the extreme pressures and temperatures of a lightning strike.
Zircon dissociation to ZrO2 and SiO2 is a high-temperature, relatively low-pressure phenomenon, consistent with previous suggestions that lightning strikes involve extreme temperatures as well as pressures greater than those usually generated in Earth's crust but rarely > 10 GPa. Expand
Oxidation state of iron in fulgurites and Trinitite: Implications for redox changes during abrupt high-temperature and pressure events
Abstract Understanding the geochemical effects of shock metamorphism that occur on planetary surfaces is critical when using potentially shocked planetary samples. Fulgurites, formed by lightningExpand
Native silicon and iron silicides in the Dhofar 280 lunar meteorite
The Dhofar 280 lunar highland meteorite is the first one in which native silicon was identified in association with iron silicides. This association is surrounded by silicate material enriched in Si,Expand
Generation of shock lamellae and melting in rocks by lightning-induced shock waves and electrical heating
The very rapid energy release from impact events, such as those resulting from lightning strikes or meteorites, can drive a variety of physical and chemical processes which alter rocks and result inExpand
Oxide reduction during triggered-lightning fulgurite formation
Abstract In this study triggered-lightning induced fulgurites were formed in 99.9% pure binary oxides of manganese (MnO) and nickel (NiO) in order to study oxide reduction mechanisms. The fulguriteExpand
Origin and formation of iron silicide phases in the aerogel of the Stardust mission
Suessite along with hapkeite and more Fe-rich iron-silicides up to Fe7Si2 formed near the entrance of aerogel track #44. These phases are ~100 nm, quenched-melt spheres, but the post-impact coolingExpand
The occurrence of iron silicides in a fulgurite: Implications for fulgurite genesis
Rapidly formed eutectic textures are observed in Fe silicides in a fulgurite from Michigan. The 14 cm-diameter fulgurite was formed in sandy glacial till in 2014 near Houghton Lake, Michigan.Expand


Intrinsic oxygen fugacity measurements on seven chondrites, a pallasite, and a tektite and the redox state of meteorite parent bodies
Abstract Intrinsic oxygen-fugacity (fO2) measurements were made on five ordinary chondrites, a carbonaceous chondrite, an enstatite chondrite, a pallasite, and a tektite. Results are of the form ofExpand
The origin and history of the metal and sulfide components of chondrules
Abstract Fourteen siderophile and other non-lithophile elements determined in 31 Semarkona (LL3.0) chondrules by neutron activation analysis are severely fractionated relative to lithophile elements.Expand
A new approach to the problem of tektite genesis
Abstract Variations in the major cation ratios in the (micro-) tektites of each of the different strewn fields were studied with the help of Niggli parameters. There is a high degree of variabilityExpand
Formation of ordinary chondrites.
Most of the chemical and mineralogical properties of the ordinary chondrites were established by processes that occurred in the solar nebula during a short time span near the time of formation of theExpand
Evidence for primitive nebular components in chondrules from the Chainpur chondrite
Abstract The least equilibrated ordinary chrondrites contain chondrules which have experienced little change since the time of their formation in the early solar system. These chondrules areExpand
Evidence of the impacting body of the Ries crater - the discovery of Fe-Cr-Ni veinlets below the crater bottom
Abstract Fe-Cr-Ni particles and veinlets have been discovered in the top 15 m of the compressed zone with abundant shatter cones below the bottom of the Ries crater. The metallic particles are lessExpand
Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction
A hypothesis is suggested which accounts for the extinctions and the iridium observations, and the chemical composition of the boundary clay, which is thought to come from the stratospheric dust, is markedly different from that of clay mixed with the Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones, which are chemically similar to each other. Expand
Silicon in the Metal Phase of Enstatite Chondrites
I HAVE recently measured the lattice parameters of the metal phases from a number of chondrites. In five common varieties the kamacite lattice parameter was within the range 2.8682 ± 0.0005 Å. ThisExpand
The nature and origin of ureilites
Abstract Ureilites are carbon-bearing olivine-pigeonite achondrites which constitute a unique achondrite type. We performed a comprehensive mineralogical and petrological study on eight ureilitesExpand
Suessite, Fe 3 Si; a new mineral in the North Haig ureilite
The North Haig olivine pigeonite achondrite (ureilite) is a polymict breccia consisting of major olivine, low-Ca pyroxene and an intergranular carbonaceous matrix. Olivine and low-Ca pyroxene varyExpand