Light propagation in arbitrary spacetimes and the gravitational lens approximation

@article{Seitz1994LightPI,
  title={Light propagation in arbitrary spacetimes and the gravitational lens approximation},
  author={Stella Seitz and P. Christian Schneider and Juergen Ehlers},
  journal={Classical and Quantum Gravity},
  year={1994},
  volume={11},
  pages={2345-2373}
}
We reformulate the transport equation which determines the size, shape and orientation of infinitesimal light beams in arbitrary spacetimes. The behaviour of such light beams near vertices and conjugate points is investigated, with special attention to the singular behaviour of the optical scalars. We then specialize the general transport equation to the case of an approximate metric of an inhomogeneous universe, which is a Friedmann metric `on average' with superposed isolated weak matter… 
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