BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES AL amyloidosis is a rare condition whose management is undergoing changes due to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. We describe a contemporary series of patients with AL amyloidosis to analyze the features that enable early diagnosis and optimal management. PATIENTS AND METHODS We recruited for analysis 32 patients (19 women; mean age, 63 years) treated consecutively at our center. RESULTS Eighty-four percent of the patients presented with asthenia, dyspnea or edema, with a previous duration of symptoms of 8 months (median). Cardiac (21/32) and renal impairment were the most common type (11/32). All of the patients, except one, had a monoclonal component in serum/urine or abnormal values for free light chains (78%, λ). The bone marrow (BM) showed clonal plasmacytosis in 29 cases. All of the cardiac biopsies and 50% of the BM biopsies showed amyloid deposits. The results of the echocardiogram and/or cardiac resonance were abnormal in 27/30 cases. The median NT-proBNP value at diagnosis was 5200 ng/ml. Thirteen patients died due to heart failure, 2 due to rejection after heart transplantation, 2 due to pneumonia and 1 after a stroke. Ten patients did not undergo treatment, 12 were treated with bortezomib and 5 were treated with alkylating agents. Five patients underwent heart transplantation and 4 underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation. Fourteen patients achieved a complete hematologic response and 10 achieved organ response. The median survival was 17 months. CONCLUSIONS Cardiac involvement is the major determinant of prognosis. Yield of involved organ biopsy is high (100% heart biopsies). Antineoplastic treatment with bortezomib and/or autologous bone marrow transplantation achieves hematological responses with improvements in organ impairment.