Light (fluorescence) and electron microscopic studies were carried out to localize steroid-binding protein (SBP) in rabbit spermatozoa. Both nonpermeabilized and permeabilized (with Tween 20, saponin, or cold acetone) spermatozoa showed fluorescence following treatment with antirabbit SBP (anti-rSBP) and subsequently with rabbit antisheep immunoglobulin G-fluorescein isothiocyanate. While the ejaculated spermatozoa were positive, epididymal sperm were observed to be negative. Although the pattern of localization of rSBP was variable, the occurrence of a negative equatorial region as well as the presence of an intense positive spherical profile ("spot") at the junction of the head and midpiece were notably consistent. The intensity of labeling with the probe, both at light and electron microscopic level, was maximal following permeabilization with cold acetone. A possible role of SBP as a steroid carrier protein across the plasma membrane of the sperm has been suggested.