Radiocontrast-induced nephrotoxicity and urinary alpha-glutathione S-transferase levels: Effect of amlodipine administration
Ligandin (GSH-S-transferase B), an abundant intracellular soluble protein in rat proximal tubules, hepatocytes, and small intestinal mucosal cells, is believed to be a component of an organic anion transport system. Its presence in urine was determined immunologically and catalytically in adult, female, Sprague-Dawley rats that were given mercuric chloride or potassium dichromate. These nephrotoxic agents produce severe renal failure, with epithelial necrosis in the proximal tubule. Mercuric chloride perferentially injures the terminal part of the proximal tubule, while potassium dichromate damages more proximal segments. Ligandinuria was consistently detected immunologically and catalytically from 6 to 24 hr following injection of mercuric chloride. Potassium dichromate administration did not result in immunologically detectable liganduria; however, GSH-S-transferase activity, which provides a more sensitive assay, was frequently detected. The findings are consistent with immunofluorescent localization of ligandin in the proximal tubule. Immunologic or enzymatic measurement of ligandin in urine may provide a sensitive index of acute injury to the proximal tubule.