Lift and drag in two-dimensional steady viscous and compressible flow

@article{Liu2015LiftAD,
  title={Lift and drag in two-dimensional steady viscous and compressible flow},
  author={L. Q. Liu and J. Y. Zhu and J. Z. Wu},
  journal={Journal of Fluid Mechanics},
  year={2015},
  volume={784},
  pages={304 - 341}
}
This paper studies the lift and drag experienced by a body in a two-dimensional, viscous, compressible and steady flow. By a rigorous linear far-field theory and the Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity field, we prove that the classic lift formula $L=-{\it\rho}_{0}U{\it\Gamma}_{{\it\phi}}$ , originally derived by Joukowski in 1906 for inviscid potential flow, and the drag formula $D={\it\rho}_{0}UQ_{{\it\psi}}$ , derived for incompressible viscous flow by Filon in 1926, are universally true… 
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