Social capital, women's autonomy and smoking among married women in low-income urban neighborhoods of Beirut, Lebanon.
The purpose of the study was to compare Bahraini adult male and female smokers with former smokers and non-smokers with respect to several aspects of lifestyle. A simplified general method for cluster-sample survey was used to select 516 subjects aged 30-79 years. Study subjects were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was 32.1 and 20.7% among men and women, respectively. A statistically significant association (p < 0.001) was observed with respect to smoking status and educational level in both sexes. Smoking was associated with less exercise and more television watching. The findings suggest that smokers should be counseled about their unhealthy lifestyle habits in addition to quitting smoking.