Lifestyle alternatives for rhizobia: mutualism, parasitism, and forgoing symbiosis.

  title={Lifestyle alternatives for rhizobia: mutualism, parasitism, and forgoing symbiosis.},
  author={Robert Ford Denison and E. Toby Kiers},
  journal={FEMS microbiology letters},
  volume={237 2},
Strains of rhizobia within a single species can have three different genetically determined strategies. Mutualistic rhizobia provide their legume hosts with nitrogen. Parasitic rhizobia infect legumes, but fix little or no nitrogen. Nonsymbiotic strains are unable to infect legumes at all. Why have rhizobium strains with one of these three strategies not displaced the others? A symbiotic (mutualistic or parasitic) rhizobium that succeeds in founding a nodule may produce many millions of… CONTINUE READING

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