Life without a wall or division machine in Bacillus subtilis

@article{Leaver2009LifeWA,
  title={Life without a wall or division machine in Bacillus subtilis},
  author={Marc S. Leaver and Patricia Dom{\'i}nguez-Cuevas and Jonathan M. Coxhead and Richard A. Daniel and Jeff Errington},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2009},
  volume={457},
  pages={849-853}
}
The cell wall is an essential structure for virtually all bacteria, forming a tough outer shell that protects the cell from damage and osmotic lysis. It is the target of our best antibiotics. L-form strains are wall-deficient derivatives of common bacteria that have been studied for decades. However, they are difficult to generate and typically require growth for many generations on osmotically protective media with antibiotics or enzymes that kill walled forms. Despite their potential… Expand
Wall proficient E. coli capable of sustained growth in the absence of the Z-ring division machine
The peptidoglycan cell wall is a major protective external sheath in bacteria and a key target for antibiotics1. Peptidoglycan is present in virtually all bacteria, suggesting that it was probablyExpand
Cell Envelope Stress Response in Cell Wall-Deficient L-Forms of Bacillus subtilis
TLDR
The results show that B. subtilis L-forms are resistant to antibiotics that interfere with the bactoprenol cycle, such as bacitracin, vancomycin, and mersacidin, but are hypersensitive to nisin and daptomycin, which both affect membrane integrity. Expand
Direct Observation of Conversion From Walled Cells to Wall-Deficient L-Form and Vice Versa in Escherichia coli Indicates the Essentiality of the Outer Membrane for Proliferation of L-Form Cells
TLDR
Results strongly suggest that wall-deficient E. coli cells require a rigid outer membrane to survive, but not too rigid to prevent them from changing cell shape. Expand
Stress-induced formation of cell wall-deficient cells in filamentous actinomycetes
TLDR
This is the first report that demonstrates the formation of wall-deficient cells as a natural adaptation strategy and their potential transition into stable wall-less forms solely caused by prolonged exposure to osmotic stress. Expand
Stress-induced formation of cell wall-deficient cells in filamentous actinomycetes
TLDR
It is proposed that formation of wall-deficient cells in actinomycetes may serve as an adaptation to osmotic stress and mutate and proliferate indefinitely as wall-less forms. Expand
Crucial role for membrane fluidity in proliferation of primitive cells.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that purely biophysical processes may have been sufficient for proliferation of primitive cells and uncovered a crucial role for branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) synthesis. Expand
From spores to antibiotics via the cell cycle.
TLDR
This review summarizes how the bacterial cell cycle field has developed over the last 20 or so years, focusing on opportunities emerging from the B. subtilis system. Expand
Reversible metamorphosis in a bacterium
TLDR
It is shown that the filamentous actinomycete Kitasatospora viridifaciens has the natural ability to switch between a wall-less state and the canonical mycelial mode-of-growth, and the polar growth determinant DivIVA is identified as an essential regulator required for reversible metamorphosis. Expand
Cell Wall Deficiency as a Coping Strategy for Stress.
TLDR
Given that wall-associated epitopes are often recognized by host defense systems, wall deficiency provides a plausible explanation for how some bacteria may hide in their host. Expand
Crucial role for central carbon metabolism in the bacterial L-form switch and killing by β-lactam antibiotics
TLDR
This work shows that the lack of a cell wall, or blocking its synthesis with β-lactam antibiotics, results in an increased flux through glycolysis, which leads to the production of reactive oxygen species from the respiratory chain, which prevents bacterial L-form growth. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 41 REFERENCES
Control of the cell elongation–division cycle by shuttling of PBP1 protein in Bacillus subtilis
TLDR
This work identifies the cell division protein, EzrA, and a newly discovered protein, GpsB, as key players in the elongation–division cycle of Bacillus subtilis, and shows that these phenotypes are tightly associated with disturbed localization of the major transglycosylase/transpeptidase of the cell, PBP1. Expand
Themes and variations in prokaryotic cell division.
  • W. Margolin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • FEMS microbiology reviews
  • 2000
TLDR
Although some cell division determinants such as FTSZ are present in a broad spectrum of prokaryotic species, the lack of FtsZ in some species and different profiles of cell division proteins in different families suggests that there are diverse mechanisms for regulating cell division. Expand
Unstable Escherichia coli L Forms Revisited: Growth Requires Peptidoglycan Synthesis
TLDR
Results strongly suggest that cefsulodin- and penicillin-induced L-form-like cells of E. coli-and possibly all L forms-have residual peptidoglycan synthesis which is essential for their growth, probably being required for cell division. Expand
Roles for MreC and MreD proteins in helical growth of the cylindrical cell wall in Bacillus subtilis
TLDR
It is suggested that MreC and MreD act in a morphogenic pathway that couples the helical cytosolic Mbl cables to the extracellular cell wall synthetic machinery, which is critical for cylindrical elongation of the rod‐shaped cells. Expand
Bacterial L-forms.
TLDR
This review particularly focuses on research using stable protoplast-type L-forms which have contributed to a better understanding of the structural and functional organisation of the cytoplasmic membrane and of cell division. Expand
Growth of the Stress-Bearing and Shape-Maintaining Murein Sacculus of Escherichia coli
  • J. Höltje
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
  • 1998
TLDR
A model is presented that postulates that maintenance of bacterial shape is achieved by the enzyme complex copying the preexisting murein sacculus that plays the role of a template. Expand
Actin-like Proteins MreB and Mbl from Bacillus subtilis Are Required for Bipolar Positioning of Replication Origins
TLDR
It is found that depletion of MreB and Mbl proteins leads to a rapid defect in chromosome segregation before a defect in cell shape becomes detectable, and the SMC chromosome segregation complex that is essential for proper chromosome arrangement and segregation loses its specific subcellular localization. Expand
A magnesium‐dependent mreB null mutant: implications for the role of mreB in Bacillus subtilis
TLDR
Results suggest that the major role of MreB in B. subtilis lies in the control of cell diameter, independent of polar effects on downstream genes. Expand
Control of Cell Shape in Bacteria Helical, Actin-like Filaments in Bacillus subtilis
TLDR
The distribution of the proteins in different species of bacteria, and the similarity of their sequence to eukaryotic actins, suggest that the MreB-like proteins have a cytoskeletal, actin-like role in bacterial cell morphogenesis. Expand
Spatial control of bacterial division-site placement
TLDR
This work reviews the latest findings on the nucleoid-occlusion system, which functions in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and is especially important in cells that lack the Min system or in cells in which nucleoid replication or segregation are defective. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...