Life on the Surface of Venus?

@article{Sagan1967LifeOT,
  title={Life on the Surface of Venus?},
  author={C. Sagan},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1967},
  volume={216},
  pages={1198-1199}
}
IT is said (for example, refs. 1–3) that our knowledge of the surface of the cloud covered planet Venus is extremely fragmentary and ambiguous; that there are alternative non-thermal explanations of the microwave emission; that, even if the surface is hot, the polar regions may be cold enough to support life, or sufficiently high mountains may exist, and so on. It seems appropriate to relate some of this speculation to continuing work on the physical environment of Venus. 
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References

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Life in the Clouds of Venus?
WHILE the surface conditions of Venus make the hypothesis of life there implausible, the clouds of Venus are a different story altogether. As was pointed out some years ago1, water, carbon dioxideExpand
Radio observations of Venus and the interpretations
The radio observations of Venus are reviewed and compared with theoretical microwave spectra computed for a variety of models of the Venusian environment. The models considered are (a) a CO2-N2Expand
Structure of the lower atmosphere of Venus
Abstract If the centimeter microwave emission from Venus arises from its surface, the radar reflectivities and microwave brightness temperatures give mean darkside surface temperatures of about 640°Expand
THE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION AND BRIGHTNESS DISTRIBUTION OF VENUS AT 10.6 CM WAVELENGTH
Abstract : Measurements of the brightness distribution and differential polarization over the surface of the planet Venus have been made at a wavelength of 10.6 cm with two element interferometersExpand
The microwave phase effect of Venus
The disk-integrated brightness temperature of Venus between 8 mm and 10 cm has been observed to vary with phase angle, the lowest temperature occuring just after inferior conjuction. We apply theExpand
The ionospheric model of the Venus microwave emission: An obituary
Abstract In the ionospheric model of Venus, the observed microwave radiation is attributed to free-free emission of electrons in a dense Cytherean ionosphere. The present paper discusses theExpand
Anisotropic nonconservative scattering and the clouds of Venus
Expressions have been obtained in a modified Schuster-Schwarzschild approximation describing the monochromatic transmissivity, reflectivity, and absorptivity of a cloud layer characterized by anExpand
Microwave Absorption in Models of the Atmosphere of Venus.
  • W. Ho
  • Geology, Chemistry
  • 1966
Coefficients of induced absorption in model atmospheres contaming CO2, N2, A, and Ne, needed to calculate the properties of the lower atmosphere of Venus from the radio observations on the assumptionExpand
An analysis of the Mariner 2 microwave observations of Venus
Mariner 2 limb darkening measurements of Venus at microwave range, discussing peak brightness temperature and opacity models
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