Life history of Kladothrips ellobus and Oncothrips rodwayi: insight into the origin and loss of soldiers in gall‐inducing thrips

  title={Life history of Kladothrips ellobus and Oncothrips rodwayi: insight into the origin and loss of soldiers in gall‐inducing thrips},
  author={Brenda D. Kranz and Michael P. Schwarz and David C. Morris and Bernard J. Crespi},
  journal={Ecological Entomology},
1. The evolution of eusociality in Australian gall‐inducing thrips cannot be understood without comparisons among closely related solitary species. The life history of two solitary, gall‐inducing thrips, Kladothrips ellobus and Oncothrips rodwayi, was investigated, and data for solitary and eusocial species from previous studies were re‐analysed. Kladothrips ellobus is in a clade that is closely related to the eusocial species. Oncothrips rodwayi is in the same clade as the eusocial species and… 

Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia.

Cockroach as the Earliest Eusocial Animal

The group of eusocial cockroaches makes termite morphotaxon polyphyletic, but also the erection of a new order for mastotermites and/or the inclusion of eUSocial, morphological cockroach within termites appears counterproductive, thus an example of such a general exception to the taxonomical procedure is provided.

Inbreeding ancestors: the role of sibmating in the social evolution of gall thrips.

Microsatellite data used to estimate levels of inbreeding in four species of solitary gall thrips on Australian Acacia showed that the ancestral lineage that gave rise to soldiers was apparently highly inbred, and therefore, inbreeding could have played a role in the origin of sociality within this group.

Altitudinal Patterns of Spider Sociality and the Biology of a New Midelevation Social Anelosimus Species in Ecuador

It is suggested that the absence of subsocial Anelosimus species in the lowland rain forest may be due to an increased probability of maternal death in this habitat due to greater predation and/or precipitation, while absence of a sufficient supply of large insects at high elevations or latitudes may restrict social species to low‐ to midelevation tropical moist forests.

Geographic patterns in the distribution of social systems in terrestrial arthropods

  • J. Purcell
  • Environmental Science
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2011
This review of previous studies of social gradients that form along latitudinal and altitudinal axes describes several environmental factors that vary consistently along such gradients, including climate variables and abundance of predators, and outline their proposed role in the social systems of terrestrial arthropods.

Ecological predictors of spider sociality in the Americas

The association of social Anelosimus with warm and wet areas in the tropics is consistent with both the seasonality and prey size hypotheses, i.e. both aseasonal conditions and warm temperatures, which allow large insects to develop, are needed for large social colonies to form.

What nymphal morphology can tell us about parental investment – a group of cockroach hatchlings in Baltic Amber documented by a multi-method approach

The specimens described here could represent a case of a group of blattodean nymphs hatching from an ootheca, which would represent the first fossil record of such a process, or even provide the first indirect evidence of social behaviour in fossil non-termite dictyopterans, indicating that it was already developed 50 million years ago.

Eusocial evolution and the recognition systems in social insects.

The need for better understanding of which surface compounds actually mediate recognition in eusocial colonies is highlighted and for further work on how differences between colony members and nonmembers are perceived.

Smaller colonies and more solitary living mark higher elevation populations of a social spider.

In comparing colony size at six different altitudes in north-eastern Ecuador, it is found that the lowland A. eximius populations tend to have larger colonies and few solitary females, while at higher elevations, many of the colonies are small and the proportion of solitary females is greater.

Comparative Social Behavior



Biosystematics of two new gall-inducing thrips with soldiers (Insecta: Thysanoptera) from Acacia trees in Australia

Four species in three genera of Phlaeothripidae are now known to induce phyllode galls on Australian Acacia trees, and four of these in two genera produce soldiers, which have enlarged fore legs to defend their gall from invaders.

Eusociality in Australian gall thrips

The presence of eusociality is reported in a second haplodiploid insect taxon, the order Thysanoptera, which provides remarkable new opportunities for analysing the causes of the evolution of eUSociality.

Ecology and evolution of galling thrips and their allies.

Galling thrips, by virtue of their haplodiploid genetic system and their ecological relationships with plants and natural enemies, are useful for analyzing a wide range of ecological, evolutionary, and behavioral questions.

Behavioural ecology of Australian gall thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera)

Data is presented on aspects of gall morphology, male and female morphology, behaviour, life cycles, and sex ratios for six gall-forming species, five species of inquilines (invaders that do not form galls), and one genus that uses secretions to glue phyllodes (modified petioles) together.

Phylogenetics of gall-inducing thrips on Australian Acacia

Examination of the distribution of the three primary life history strategies employed by gall-inducing thrips indicates that two of the strategies may have evolved as a result of factors associated with host plant affiliations or through parasite pressure, but the phylogeny does not support the existing generic classification of the group.

A fully reproductive fighting morph in a soldier clade of gall-inducing thrips (Oncothrips morrisi)

The first life history data for Oncothrips morrisi, a species in a clade of haplodiploid, Australian gall-inducing thrips that has a micropteran fighting morph in the first generation of the gall, is presented, and selection to defend one's offspring may have promoted the evolution of soldier-like morphology and behaviour.

High relatedness and inbreeding in two species of haplodiploid eusocial thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) revealed by microsatellite analysis

It is implied that high relatedness and inbreeding are important for the evolution and form of social behavior in Australian gall-forming Thysanoptera.

A phylogenetic analysis of soldier evolution in the aphid family Hormaphididae

  • D. Stern
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1994
A mtDNA based phylogeny for the Hormaphididae is presented and the hypothesis that soldiers in the tribe Cerataphidini produced during two points in the life cycle represent independent origins are tested, and the results support this hypothesis.


The findings indicate that the main selective pressures driving the evolution of gall form in Australian gall thrips on Acacia involve inner surface area to volume relationships, which change in concert with foundress fecundity and the number of within‐gall generations.

Social biology and sex ratios of the eusocial gall‐inducing thrips Kladothrips hamiltoni

1. Thrips comprise the only order besides Hymenoptera where females are diploid and males are haploid. This makes them useful insects for studying the roles of kin selection and ecology in social