Life beyond the mirror: a reply to Anderson & Gallup

  title={Life beyond the mirror: a reply to Anderson \& Gallup},
  author={Marc D. Hauser and Jan Kr{\'a}l{\'i}k},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
No abstractCopyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. 
Current issues and emerging theories in animal cognition.
Four areas within comparative cognition that are yielding new approaches and hypotheses for studying basic conceptual capacities in nonhuman species are discussed, including studies of imitation, tool use, mirror self-recognition, and the potential for attribution of mental states by nonhuman animals.
Do rhesus monkeys recognize themselves in mirrors?
It is concluded that the article fails to provide acceptable evidence for self‐recognition in rhesus monkeys.
Tracking responses related to self-recognition: A frequency comparison of responses to mirrors, photographs, and videotapes by cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus)
The frequency of responses cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) emitted indicative of self-recognition to a mirror was compared with the frequencies of responses emitted to digitized photographs of
Cotton‐top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) fail to show mirror‐guided self‐exploration
To investigate the problem of inter‐ and intraspecific differences on the mirror test, two experiments on cotton‐top tamarins conducted a technique similar to one used recently on chimpanzees, and provided no evidence of mirror‐mediated touching of the marked area.
The agent-based perspective on imitation
This chapter presents the agent-based perspective on imitation. In this perspective, imitation is best considered as the behavior of an autonomous agent in relation to its environment, including
An assay for human chemosignals.
An experimental arrangement is described that casts a wide net for the possible chemosignaling functions of target molecules and can be used in concert with various methods for measuring the human behavioral and brain responses, including psychophysiology and brain imaging.
Harvard probe kept under wraps


Self-recognition in Saguinus ? A critical essay
This paper presents a meta-anatomy of the woolly mammoth and its role in the evolution of social behaviour and shows clear patterns of growth and decline that are consistent with that of other animals.
Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition
After prolonged exposure to their reflected images in mirrors, chimpanzees marked with red dye showed evidence of being able to recognize their own reflections. Monkeys did not appear to have this
Self-recognition in primates: further reflections create a hall of mirrors
Gallup et al.'s (1995, Anim. Behav., 50, 1525–1532) defense of the view that Gallup's mark test has provided evidence of self-recognition in apes is countered point by point. The plasusibility of the
Theory of mind in nonhuman primates.
  • C. Heyes
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Behavioral and brain sciences
  • 1998
A procedure that uses conditional discrimination training and transfer tests to determine whether chimpanzees have the concept "see" is proposed and critics are invited to identify flaws in the procedure and to suggest alternatives.
Reflections on self-recognition in primates
Abstract Abstract. Evidence that apes touch head marks more in the presence of a mirror than in its absence have been taken to indicate that, unlike monkeys, they are capable of self-recognition and
Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence
: Investigations of mirror self-recognition (SR) in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have had small samples and divergent methods. In Experiment 1, 105 chimpanzees (10 months to 40 years of age) were
Self-recognition in primates: phylogeny and the salience of species-typical features.
The mirror test may not be sufficient for assessing the concept of self or mental state attribution in nonlinguistic organisms, and an individual's sensitivity to experimentally modified parts of its body may depend crucially on the relative saliency of the modified part.