Life-History Consequences of Natural Selection: Cole's Result Revisited

@article{Charnov1973LifeHistoryCO,
  title={Life-History Consequences of Natural Selection: Cole's Result Revisited},
  author={Eric L. Charnov and William M. Schaffer},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={1973},
  volume={107},
  pages={791 - 793}
}
In his interesting paper on life-history strategies, Cole (1954) argued for the following result: "For an annual species, the absolute gain in intrinsic population growth that can be achieved by changing to the perennial reproductive habit would be exactly equivalent to adding one more individual to the average litter size." Thus, a clutch of size 101 at age 1 would serve the same purpose as having a clutch of size 100 every year forever. Gadgil and Bossert (1970) claimed that this was due to… 
Fitness, Reproductive Value, and Cole's Result
TLDR
Cole's result and subsequent modifications, most notably by Charnov and Schaffer (1973), can best be understood as applications of the life history theorem regarding the equivalence of maximizing fitness and reproductive value.
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  • G. Bell
  • Economics
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  • 1980
TLDR
This paper identifies the effects of different types of reproductive cost on the pattern of life histories, and argues that experimental tests of life history theory are not yet feasible, and that the authors must instead rely on comparative techniques.
Life-History Tactics: A Review of the Ideas
  • S. Stearns
  • Biology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1976
TLDR
This review organizes ideas on the evolution of life histories into more comprehensive theory that makes more readily falsifiable predictions, and examination of different definitions of fitness.
A Note on Sex and Life Histories
TLDR
This work offers an elementary population genetics treatment of the problem, studying selection on a rare allele affecting the life history of an outcrossed monoecious plant.
On Breeding More Than Once
  • G. Bell
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1976
TLDR
It is concluded that the evolution of iteroparity will be favored by a number of factors and particularly by delayed maturity and by reduction in the rate of survival during the first year of life.
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TLDR
It is shown that an optimal life history maximizes for each age class the expected fecundity at that age plus the sum of all future expected parameters, which suggests that related species, with similar ecologies, may have very different life histories, the differences resulting from historical accidents that have trapped each on a different adaptive peak.
Solar noon and tactile cues synergistically regulate clutch size: a new approach to investigations of avian life‐history theory
TLDR
Haywood’s egg removal experiments with Common Swifts Apus apus nicely demonstrate that the trait (or suite of traits) under selection is not the number of eggs in a clutch, an ordinal trait measured quantitatively, but rather the physiological mechanisms controlling the endpoint of the laying sequence.
Evolution of Life Histories in Response to Age-Specific Mortality Factors
  • R. Michod
  • Economics
    The American Naturalist
  • 1979
TLDR
It is shown that evolution of reproductive effort leads to the greatest proportionate withdrawal of reproductive value from those adult age classes plagued by new mortality factors, and the commonly observed inverse relationship between reproductive value and mortality is provided with a theoretical underpinning.
Life history variation is maintained by fitness trade-offs and negative frequency-dependent selection
TLDR
It is found that fish that successfully migrate between the ocean and their freshwater spawning grounds multiple times (repeat spawners) have more than twice the lifetime reproductive success of fish that only spawn once (single spawners).
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References

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The proposal of Gadgil and Bossert (1970) to amend Cole's (1954) conclusion regarding the relative merit of perennial compared to annual reproduction is questioned.
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The hypotheses that most mammalian species have life tables of a common form, and that the pattern of age—specific mortality within species assumes an approximately constant form irrespective of the proximate causes of mortality, are suggested.
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