Life Extension by Calorie Restriction in Humans

  title={Life Extension by Calorie Restriction in Humans},
  author={Arthur V. Everitt and David G. Le Couteur},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
Abstract:  Long‐term reduction in energy intake in the diet (calorie restriction [CR]) extends the life of the laboratory rat by about 25%. However, in humans there are no life‐long studies of CR, but only short‐term trials which indicate that 20% CR acting over periods of 2–6 years is associated with reduced body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose—risk factors for the major killer diseases of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In addition, recent research has shown… 
Food Intake, Life Style, Aging and Human Longevity
It is likely that long-term CR with a healthy lifestyle to prevent overweight and obesity would add only about 5–10 years to human survival, and food restriction is not recommended in old age.
Antiaging, longevity and calorie restriction
Dietary restriction in rodents has not been shown to be effective when started in older rodents, and exercise at present appears to be a preferable treatment for older persons.
Diabetes medications as potential calorie restriction mimetics-a focus on the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose.
Acarbose, an AGI, has been shown in pre-clinical models to increase lifespan (greater longevity benefits in males), with decreased body weight gain independent of calorie intake reduction, and is supported by clinical findings beyond T2D including the risk for other age-related diseases.
Caloric Restriction and Antiaging Effects
The metabolic changes induced by dietary restriction, the inhibition of fat deposition in nonadipose tissue and the effects on signal transduction are considered the most likely candidates for mechanisms underlying the effects of CR.
Adipokine profile and insulin sensitivity in formerly obese women subjected to bariatric surgery or diet-induced long-term caloric restriction.
Despite a considerably stronger weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, both long-term caloric restriction interventions improved insulin sensitivity to the same degree and led to significantly lower retinol-binding protein-4 and interleukin-6 serum levels than in OW, suggesting that lowering of these two adipokines contributes to the improved insulinensitivity.
Calorie restriction as an intervention in ageing
The present revision of Calorie restriction (CR) focuses on the general effect of CR and other mimetics in longevity, focusing especially on the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle.
When You Eat Matters: 60 Years of Franz Halberg's Nutrition Chronomics
Franz Halberg revolutionalized the field of nutrition by his demonstration that "when" we eat can make the difference between life and death in the experimental laboratory, and between weight gain or


Effect of 6-month calorie restriction on biomarkers of longevity, metabolic adaptation, and oxidative stress in overweight individuals: a randomized controlled trial.
The findings suggest that 2 biomarkers of longevity (fasting insulin level and body temperature) are decreased by prolonged calorie restriction in humans and support the theory that metabolic rate is reduced beyond the level expected from reduced metabolic body mass.
Caloric restriction versus drug therapy to delay the onset of aging diseases and extend life
Since the greatest life-extending effects of CR in the rodent occur when started early in life, long-term antiaging therapy in humans should be initiated soon after maturity, when physiological systems have developed optimally.
Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans.
It appears that long-term CR has a powerful protective effect against atherosclerosis, supported by the finding of a low carotid artery IMT.
Calorie restriction in biosphere 2: alterations in physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a 2-year period.
It is concluded that healthy nonobese humans on a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet show physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical changes resembling those of rodents and monkeys on such diets.
Obesity in Adulthood and Its Consequences for Life Expectancy: A Life-Table Analysis
An estimate of the effect of obesity and overweight in adulthood on life expectancy is provided, implicitly taking into account the various possible weight trajectories throughout the life course, based on data from the Framingham Heart Study.
The effect of exercise on food intake in men and women.
  • M. Staten
  • Medicine
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 1991
Both normal-weight men and women were in negative caloric balance during the exercise period, and men responded to 5 d of acute exercise with increased caloric intake, which was insufficient to compensate for the caloric cost of exercise.
Years of life lost due to obesity.
Obesity appears to lessen life expectancy markedly, especially among younger adults, and Marked race and sex differences were observed in estimated YLL.
How Diet Influences the Aging Process of the Rat
  • B. P. Yu
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1994
This review presents pertinent data on how nutrition may influence the longevity of organisms and modulate age-related diseases as well as underfeeding paradigms as calorie restriction.