Lichen metabolism identified in Early Devonian terrestrial organisms

  title={Lichen metabolism identified in Early Devonian terrestrial organisms},
  author={A. Hope Jahren and S. Porter and Jeffrey J. Kuglitsch},
We used δ 1 3 C values to identify lichen metabolism in the globally distributed Early Devonian (409-386 Ma) macrofossil Spongiophyton minutissimum, which had been alternatively interpreted as a green plant of bryophyte grade or as a lichen, based on its morphology. Extant mosses and hornworts exhibited a range of δ 1 3 C t i s s u e values that was discrete from that of extant lichens. The δ 1 3 C t i s s u e values of 96 S. minutissimum specimens coincided with δ 1 3 C t i s s u e values of… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

The land plant δ13C record and plant evolution in the Late Palaeozoic
Abstract Based on the evaluation of 1323 carbon isotope values for Silurian to Permian terrestrial organic carbon, measured on plant fossils, cuticules, humic coals and bulk terrestrial organicExpand
The most ancient terrestrial lichen Winfrenatia reticulata: A new find and new interpretation
This oldest terrestrial lichen is dated to the Pragian (=Siegenian) of the Early Devonian, and is constituted of a mycobiont and filamentous and coccoid cyanobacteria. Expand
A thalloid organism with possible lichen affinity from the Jurassic of northeastern China
The structural similarities with extant lichens, close association with land plants, and the environment in which the organism lived, suggest that the affinity of D. ciliiferus is with the lichens. Expand
The earliest records of internally stratified cyanobacterial and algal lichens from the Lower Devonian of the Welsh Borderland.
These fossils represent the oldest known record of lichens with symbionts and anatomy as typically found in morphologically advanced taxa today. Expand
Carbon sources for the Palaeozoic giant fungus Prototaxites inferred from modern analogues
A saprotrophic fungal identity is supported for Prototaxites, which may have relied on deposits of algal-derived organic matter in floodplain environments that were less dominated by vascular plants than a straight reading of the macrofossil record might suggest. Expand
Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus
Prototaxites biogeochemistry suggests that a biologically heterogeneous mosaic of primary producers characterized land surfaces well into the vascular plant era, consistent with anatomy-based interpretation as a fungus. Expand
Affinities and architecture of Devonian trunks of Prototaxites loganii
The histology of a complete fossil of Prototaxites loganii from the Middle Devonian Bellvale Sandstone on Schunnemunk Mountain, eastern New York is unlike algae, liverworts or vascular plants and most like lichen with coccoid chlorophyte phycobionts. Expand
A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.
The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years and provides the first detailed views of mycobionT-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens. Expand
Carbon isotopes support the presence of extensive land floras pre-dating the origin of vascular plants.
Abstract Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Earth's land masses became green some 2.7 Ga ago, about 1 billion years after the advent of life. About 2.2 billion years later, land plants abruptlyExpand
The carbon stable isotope composition of pollen A . Hope Jahren
The dC value of plant tissue is increasingly used to infer environmental and ecological conditions in modern and ancient environments. Isolation techniques and morphological descriptions have beenExpand


Variation in carbon isotope discrimination within and among Sphagnum species in a temperate wetland
The results suggest that environmental, not genetic, variation at microsites affects Δ in non-vascular plants, however, environmental control of Δ is unlike that in vascular plants where water limitation lowers chloroplastic demand and increases resistance to carbon uptake. Expand
Multiple origins of lichen symbioses in fungi suggested by SSU rDNA phylogeny.
A highly resolved parsimony analysis of small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences suggests at least five independent origins of the lichen habit in disparate groups of Ascomycete and Basidiomycetes. Expand
Diatom sources of 13C-rich carbon in marine food webs
We used stable isotope measurements to investigate the possible nutritional importance of diatoms for consumers in planktonic food webs. Several lines of evidence indicated that rapidly growingExpand
SSU rDNA phylogeny of cladoniiform lichens.
The phylogenetic hypothesis supports the monophyletic origin of the order Lecanorales sensu stricto, including representatives of five suborders Cladoniineae, Lecanspora schleicheri and Megaspora verrucosa, Pertusariineae (Pertusaria trachythallina), and Umbilicarineae, but excluding representatives of the suborders Acarosporineae and Peltigerineae. Expand
Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens
Ediacaran fossils are taphonomically similar to impressions of fossil plants common in quartz sandstones, and the relief of the fossils suggests that they were as resistant to compaction duringExpand
Can C3 plants faithfully record the carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide?
Abstract Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the raw material for the biosphere. Therefore, changes in the carbon isotopic composition of the atmosphere will influence the terrestrial δ13C signals weExpand
Hyphal cell biology
The ability of a microbe to rapidly colonize new substrates by concentrating growth at its apex, is well suited for life as a heterotroph in a heterogenous environment. Expand
Biological impact on mineral dissolution: application of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere.
A model based on the lichen-mineral system is employed to identify the fundamental interactions of microorganisms in soils and finds that fungi can accelerate mineral dissolution, leading to enhanced porosity and permeability and colonization by microbial communities. Expand
Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Photosynthesis
We discuss the physical and enzymatic bases of carbone isotope discrimination during photosynthesis, noting how knowledge of discrimination can be used to provide additional insight intoExpand