Lichen-Like Symbiosis 600 Million Years Ago

@article{Yuan2005LichenLikeS6,
  title={Lichen-Like Symbiosis 600 Million Years Ago},
  author={Xunlai Yuan and Shuhai Xiao and Thomas N. Taylor},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={308},
  pages={1017 - 1020}
}
The fossil record of fungi and lichens is scarce. Here we report the discovery of lichen-like fossils, involving filamentous hyphae closely associated with coccoidal cyanobacteria or algae, preserved in marine phosphorite of the Doushantuo Formation (between 551 and 635 million years old) at Weng'an, South China. These fossils indicate that fungi developed symbiotic partnerships with photoautotrophs before the evolution of vascular plants. 
The most ancient terrestrial lichen Winfrenatia reticulata: A new find and new interpretation
TLDR
This oldest terrestrial lichen is dated to the Pragian (=Siegenian) of the Early Devonian, and is constituted of a mycobiont and filamentous and coccoid cyanobacteria.
Cryptic terrestrial fungus-like fossils of the early Ediacaran Period
The colonization of land by fungi had a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles on Earth surface systems. Although fungi may have diverged ~1500–900 million years
15 The Symbiotic Phenotype of Lichen-Forming Ascomycetes and Their Endo- and Epibionts
TLDR
The focus is on the symbiotic phenotype of lichen-forming ascomycetes, i.e. the main types of thallus morphologies, the functional anatomy of macrolichens and their growth patterns, the fine structure and composition of cell wall types of Lichen photobionts and their impact on the mycobiont–photobionT interface.
A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.
TLDR
The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years and provides the first detailed views of mycobionT-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens.
Endolichenic fungal diversity associated with some lichens of the Western Ghats.
TLDR
Of the 28 sporulating fungi, 7 belonged to Xylariales, and their total colonization frequency in all the lichens was high, which substantiates the high ecological amplitude of Xylariaes.
17 Bacteria and the Lichen Symbiosis
TLDR
First evidence from culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches suggest the contribution of bacteria to several possible functions in the lichen symbiosis, and points on the biotechnological potential of lichen-associated bacteria.
Lichenization: The Origins of a Fungal Life-Style
TLDR
Hypotheses put forward to explain lichenization are examined in the context of the evidence from the fossil record and molecular biology, and some caution is necessary as the molecular trees do not included data from extinct lineages.
Proterozoic phytoplankton and timing of Chlorophyte algae origins
TLDR
Morphological and reproductive features and cell wall ultrastructure and biochemistry of Proterozoic acritarchs are used to determine their affinity to modern algae to infer a minimum age of the divergence of the algal classes to which they may belong.
The earliest records of internally stratified cyanobacterial and algal lichens from the Lower Devonian of the Welsh Borderland.
TLDR
These fossils represent the oldest known record of lichens with symbionts and anatomy as typically found in morphologically advanced taxa today.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 22 REFERENCES
Fossil arbuscular mycorrhizae from the Early Devonian
AbstractThe 400 million-year-old Rhynie chert has provided a wealth of information not only of early land plants, but also of the fungi that inhabited this paleoecosystem. In this paper we report t...
Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician.
TLDR
Fossilized fungal hyphae and spores from the Ordovician of Wisconsin strongly resemble modern arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes), indicating that Glomales-like fungi were present at a time when the land flora most likely only consisted of plants on the bryophytic level.
Early molecular investigations of lichen-forming symbionts: 1986-2001*.
TLDR
This review examines the influence of molecular investigation on lichenology during this first 15 years by examining the phylogenetic placement of the individual symbiotic partners with their free-living relatives, refining their nomenclature and classification.
A cyanolichen from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert.
TLDR
It is speculated that this cyanobacterial symbiosis was well adapted to exploit and colonize new ecological niches, especially in the periodically desiccated environment postulated for the Rhynie chert paleoecosystem.
Molecular Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants
TLDR
Protein sequence analyses indicate that green algae and major lineages of fungi were present 1000 Ma and that land plants appeared by 700 Ma, possibly affecting Earth's atmosphere, climate, and evolution of animals in the Precambrian.
Phosphatized multicellular algae in the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China, and the early evolution of florideophyte red algae.
TLDR
A phylogenetic interpretation implies that (1) the phylogenetic divergence between the Florideophyceae and its sister group, the Bangiales, must have taken place before Doushantuo time-an inference supported by the occurrence of bangialean fossils in Mesoproterozoic rocks.
Saprotrophy and lichenization as options for the same fungal species on different substrata: environmental plasticity and fungal lifestyles in the Stictis–Conotrema complex
TLDR
The results suggest that all three cases represent independent fungal phylogenetic species, which can undergo their whole sexual lifecycle either as lichens or as saprotrophs, and are suggested to be common in the Stictidaceae.
Multicellular thallophytes with differentiated tissues from Late Proterozoic phosphate rocks of South China
An assemblage of megascopic, multicellular thallophytes with well-preserved tissues and microstructures was discovered in phosphate rocks of the Late Proterozoic Doushantuo Formation (approximately
Marine Mycology: The Higher Fungi
TLDR
Marine mycology: the higher fungi, Marine mycologists: the high fungi, and more.
Geosiphon pyriforme, a fungus forming endocytobiosis withNostoc (Cyanobacteria), is an ancestral member of the glomales: Evidence by SSU rRNA Analysis
TLDR
Geosiphon shows the ability of a Glomus-like fungus to form a “primitive” symbiosis with a unicellular photcautotrophic organism, in this case a cyanobacterium, leading to the conclusion that a hypothetical association of aGlomus -like fungus with a green alga as a step during the evolution of the land plants appears probable.
...
...