Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations.

  title={Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations.},
  author={Jesse Graham and Jonathan Haidt and Brian A. Nosek},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={96 5},
How and why do moral judgments vary across the political spectrum? To test moral foundations theory (J. Haidt & J. Graham, 2007; J. Haidt & C. Joseph, 2004), the authors developed several ways to measure people's use of 5 sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. Across 4 studies using multiple methods, liberals consistently showed greater endorsement and use of the Harm/care and Fairness/reciprocity foundations compared… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Moral Foundations and Heterogeneity in Ideological Preferences

Scholars have documented numerous examples of how liberals and conservatives differ in considering public policy. Recent work in political psychology has sought to understand these differences by

Warning Bell: Liberals Implicitly Respond to Group Morality Before Rejecting it Explicitly

Moral Foundations Theory (Haidt & Graham, 2007) explains the intractability of many political disagreements as the result of liberals and conservatives reacting to different patterns of intuitive

Liberals and conservatives rely on common moral foundations when making moral judgments about influential people.

The findings imply that moral foundation theory may have exaggerated differences between liberals and conservatives, as their similarities outweigh their differences.

Discursive or intuitive moral differences? Liberals predict right-wing responses on Haidt’s Moral Foundations Questionnaire

Psychological studies of morality have traditionally focused on harm/care and justice/fairness as the product of developed, epistemic reasoning processes by which people arrive at a consensual code

Moral Foundations, Political Orientation and Religiosity In Italy

Background: This study investigates the role of political orientation and religiosity in Italy for moral foundations endorsement, in light of Haidt and Graham’s Moral Foundations Theory. This theory

Mapping the Connections between Politics and Morality: The Multiple Sociopolitical Orientations Involved in Moral Intuition

According to moral foundations theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2004), five foundations are central to moral intuition. The two individualizing foundations—harm/care and fairness/reciprocity—hinge on the

Mortal Morality: How Threat and Partisanship Influence Moral Judgment

According to Moral Foundations Theory (MFT), ideologues’ moral judgments fundamentally diverge. Liberals resonate more with individual appeals (to issues of harm or fairness), while conservatives are

Act versus Impact: Conservatives and liberals exhibit different structural emphases in moral judgment

Conservatives and liberals disagree sharply on matters of morality and public policy. We propose a novel account of the psychological basis of these differences. Specifically, we find that

The Relationship Between Ideology and Disgust Sensitivity

The aim of the current paper is to examine the association between ideology and disgust sensitivity. Studying disgust offers psychologists an opportunity to assess how judgments have evolved over



Affect, culture, and morality, or is it wrong to eat your dog?

For Brazilian and U.S. adults and children of high and low socioeconomic status, moral judgments were better predicted by affective reactions than by appraisals of harmfulness and suggestions are made for building cross-culturally valid models of moral judgment.

Above and Below Left–Right: Ideological Narratives and Moral Foundations

Why do people vary in their views of human nature and their visions of the good society? Why do many people categorize themselves as “liberal,” “conservative,” “libertarian,” “socialist,” and so on?

Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology

The thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat.

Intuitive ethics: how innately prepared intuitions generate culturally variable virtues

maps embellished with fantastical beasts, sixteenth-century wonder chambers 1⁄2lled with natural and technological marvels, even late-twentieth-century supermarket tabloids–all attest to the human

The development of morality

Evidence that individuals distinguish between moral and conventional rules is reviewed. Moral rules prohibit actions that result in victims (e.g., violence, stealing, etc.). Conventional rules

The end of the end of ideology.

  • J. Jost
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 2006
Studies reveal that there are indeed meaningful political and psychological differences that covary with ideological self-placement and are useful for understanding the political divide between "red states" and "blue states".

The psychology of the unthinkable: taboo trade-offs, forbidden base rates, and heretical counterfactuals.

Although the results fit the sacred-value-protection model (SVPM) better than rival formulations, the SVPM must draw on cross-cultural taxonomies of relational schemata to specify normative boundaries on thought.

Moral heuristics.

Moral framing effects, including those in the context of obligations to future generations, are discussed, and the idea of error-prone heuristics is especially controversial in the moral domain, where agreement on the correct answer may be hard to elicit.

Moral heuristics. Commentaries. Author's reply

With respect to questions of fact, people use heuristics - mental shot-cuts, or rules of thumb, that generally work well, but that also lead to systematic errors. People use moral heuristics too -

The Role of Self-Interest in Social and Political Attitudes