Liarozole markedly increases all trans-retinoic acid toxicity in mouse limb bud cell cultures: a model to explain the potency of the aromatic retinoid (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthylenyl)-1-propenyl] benzoic acid.

@article{Pignatello2002LiarozoleMI,
  title={Liarozole markedly increases all trans-retinoic acid toxicity in mouse limb bud cell cultures: a model to explain the potency of the aromatic retinoid (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthylenyl)-1-propenyl] benzoic acid.},
  author={Michael A Pignatello and Frederick C. Kauffman and Arthur A. Levin},
  journal={Toxicology and applied pharmacology},
  year={2002},
  volume={178 3},
  pages={186-94}
}
The remarkable toxicity of (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthylenyl)-1-propenyl] benzoic acid (TTNPB) compared to all trans-retinoic acid (tRA) is due to multiple factors, including reduced affinities for cytosolic binding proteins (CRABPs), resistance to metabolism, and prolonged nuclear receptor activation. To further investigate the role of half-life in retinoid toxicity, experiments were performed to determine whether, and to what extent, inhibition of tRA metabolism… CONTINUE READING