Levosimendan is a pyridazinone-dinitrile derivative with positive inotropic and vasodilatory effects that has beneficial effects on myocardial performance. In previous randomized studies levosimendan improved hemodynamics and clinical course, but its effect on prognosis is still unclear. This important issue has limited its use. Although primarily used in the management of acute heart failure syndromes, this new inotropic agent may play a role in other clinical conditions. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on levosimendan and to present future prospects for the use of this drug.