Levorphanol use: past, present and future

  title={Levorphanol use: past, present and future},
  author={Jeffrey A Gudin and Jeffrey Fudin and Srinivas Nalamachu},
  journal={Postgraduate Medicine},
  pages={46 - 53}
Abstract Levorphanol is a potent opioid analgesic that was first approved for use in the United States in 1953. Levorphanol is approved for use in moderate to severe pain where an opioid analgesic is appropriate. Levorphanol has a wide range of activities including mu opioid agonism, delta agonism, kappa1 and kappa3 receptor agonism, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism and reuptake inhibition of both norepinephrine and serotonin. This multimodal profile might prove effective for pain… 
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