Levodopa‐induced dyskinesias

@article{Fabbrini2007LevodopainducedD,
  title={Levodopa‐induced dyskinesias},
  author={Giovanni Fabbrini and Jonathan M. Brotchie and Francisco Grandas and Masahiro Nomoto and Christopher G Goetz},
  journal={Movement Disorders},
  year={2007},
  volume={22}
}
Levodopa‐induced dyskinesias (LID) are common and difficult to treat. This review focuses on three issues related to LID: clinical features, classification and rating, pathophysiology and pathogenesis, and management. The three primary clinical syndromes are OFF‐period dystonia, peak‐dose dyskinesia, and diphasic dyskinesia. Several other forms also occur, making the evaluation and choice of treatment complicated. A core component of the pathophysiology of LID is overactivity of the direct… 
Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and Medical Management
TLDR
Treatment of LID requires careful history taking and clinical examination to find the type of dyskinesia as different approach is required for different types, and changes in dopaminergic medication including continuous dopamine stimulation are very helpful in the management of peak-dose dyskineia.
Molecular imaging of levodopa-induced dyskinesias
TLDR
Findings from preclinical, clinical, and molecular imaging studies, which have contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology of LIDs in PD are reviewed.
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias and their management
TLDR
The epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features and rationale for managing dyskinesias associated with Parkinson’s disease are reviewed, finding that dystonia occurs throughout the duration of the on period, whereas choreiform movements occur only at the peak of therapeutic dopaminergic motor responses.
Relief of parkinsonism and dyskinesia
TLDR
This report argues for an alternative conceptualization of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) that better fits what is known, and suggests a shrinking therapeutic window over time does not figure into their current understanding of LID.
Chemical management of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease patients
TLDR
Treatment of dyskinesias is still challenging and largely due to their side effects, so future research should focus on developing treatments that can provide continuous dopaminergic delivery throughout the day in a noninvasive manner.
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia and striatal signaling pathways
  • A. Pisani, Jie Shen
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2009
TLDR
It is reported that CalDAG-GEFI and CalD AG-GEFII, regulators of the ERK signaling pathway, may be key mediators of dyskinesia expression in the striatum, and alterations in striatal dopamine receptors and their downstream signaling targets are reported.
Therapies for dopaminergic‐induced dyskinesias in parkinson disease
TLDR
These findings support the hypothesis of glutamate overactivity in the development of dyskinesias and suggest more continuous delivery of dopaminergic medication, such as through intraintestinal or subcutaneous routes, is promising but invasive and associated with injection site reactions.
Drug-Induced Dyskinesia, Part 1: Treatment of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia
TLDR
While fractionation of levodopa dosage is the most frequently utilized strategy, many patients require deep brain stimulation to control their troublesome motor fluctuations and LIDs.
Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease Therapy
TLDR
This Special Issue discusses recent breakthroughs in this direction and provides an update of the clinical features and management of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, and describes the management of this condition, based on the use of various types of dopaminergic agonists.
l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia-clinical presentation, genetics, and treatment.
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