Levels of synthetic antioxidants (ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole) in fish feed and commercially farmed fish

  title={Levels of synthetic antioxidants (ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole) in fish feed and commercially farmed fish},
  author={Anne Katrine Lundebye and Helge Torbj{\o}rn Hove and Amund M{\aa}ge and Victoria J Berdikova Bohne and Kristin Hamre},
  journal={Food Additives \& Contaminants: Part A},
  pages={1652 - 1657}
Several synthetic antioxidants are authorized for use as feed additives in the European Union. Ethoxyquin (EQ) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are generally added to fish meal and fish oil, respectively, to limit lipid oxidation. The study was conducted to examine the concentrations of EQ, BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in several commercially important species of farmed fish, namely Atlantic salmon, halibut and cod and rainbow trout, as well as concentrations in fish feed. The… 

Investigations on the metabolism and potentially adverse effects of ethoxyquin dimer, a major metabolite of the synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin in salmon muscle.

Evaluating the metabolism and potentially toxicological effects of EQDM revealed that EQDM produces responses that are comparable to those produced by the parent compound (EQ) in terms of activating the same enzyme systems.

Tolerance and dose-response assessment of subchronic dietary ethoxyquin exposure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

The depletion of liver intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles was considered the critical endpoint for benchmark dose assessment, and a BMDL10 of 243 mg EQ/kg feed was derived as a safe upper limit of EQ exposure in Atlantic salmon.

Modelling of the feed-to-fillet transfer of ethoxyquin and one of its main metabolites, ethoxyquin dimer, to the fillet of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar L.)

In this study, the feed-to-fillet transfer of dietary EQ and EQDM in Atlantic salmon fillet was investigated, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK-) two-compartmental model was developed, based on experimental determined EQ and IQ uptake, metabolism, and elimination kinetics.

Influence of the Dietary Addition of Butylated-Hydroxytoluene and Lipid Level on the Flesh Lipid Quality of Beluga Sturgeon (Huso huso) During Frozen Storage

The main aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of dietary butylated-hydroxytoulene (BHT as an antioxidant) and dietary lipid level on flesh lipid quality of Beluga sturgeon during frozen

Ethoxyquin: An Antioxidant Used in Animal Feed

The characteristics of the compound and results of the research, concerning, for example, products of its metabolism and oxidation or searching for new antioxidants on the EQ backbone are presented.

Effect of the antioxidant profile in the diet of farmed coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ) on the nutritional value retention during frozen storage

No effect of dietary antioxidant profile could be detected on proximate composition, α-tocopherol and astaxanthin contents or color, but fatty acid composition, the fish samples corresponding to diet II showed higher C22:6ω3 and monounsaturated contents, but lower C20:5ω2 and saturated contents when compared to their counterparts from diet I.

Ethoxyquin: a feed additive that poses a risk for aquatic life.

This study raises further concern about the (until recently) legal maximum tolerable EQ levels in fish feeding and the rather slow pace at which authorization to use EQ as a feed additive for diverse animals in Europe is being suspended.

Growth and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity of juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed on diets supplemented with ethoxyquin, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), or bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus)

The efficacy of the natural antioxidants rosemary (RM) and bladder wrack (BW), a seaweed, were compared to that of the synthetic ethoxyquin (EQ) in stabilizing lipid oxidation. The three antioxidants



Retention of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets

The levels of BHA in salmon fillets were fairly dose dependent during the feeding period and after the 2-week withdrawal period, BHA was not detectable (<7 μg kg⁻¹) in either fish fillets or livers.

Accumulation and depuration of the synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin in the muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

  • V. BohneA. LundebyeK. Hamre
  • Environmental Science
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2008

Residues of Ethoxyquin and Ethoxyquin Dimer in Ocean‐Farmed Salmonids Determined by High‐Pressure Liquid Chromatography

: The occurrence of residues of ethoxyquin (EQ) and ethoxyquin dimer (DM) from fish feeds in the liver and muscle of farmed salmon and steelhead was studied. For quantitative analysis of DM, the

Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk: results from analyses in the Netherlands Cohort Study.

HPLC determination of ethoxyquin and its major oxidation products in fresh and stored fish meals and fish feeds.

A new method was developed to determine 1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline (EQ, ethoxyquin), 2,6-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethyl-6-quinolone (QI) and

Residues of ethoxyquin in poultry tissues and eggs.

Tissues of broilers raised experimentally on diets containing the feed antioxidant ethoxyquin contained very low levels of this compound both raw and after roasting, and residues were higher in liver and body fat than in liver content.

Simultaneous quantitative determination of the synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin and its major metabolite in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L), ethoxyquin dimer, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

The concentrations of EQ, EQ dimer, and de-ethylated EQ, as well as concentrations of UMEQ (in arbitrary units), in the muscle were correlated to the amount of EQ fed to the salmon, thus indicating their possible metabolic origin.

Effects of dietary oltipraz and ethoxyquin on aflatoxin B1 biotransformation in non-human primates.

The data suggest that chemoprevention is also effective in primates; however, most likely to a lesser degree than in rodents.

Determination of ethoxyquin in feeds by liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

The LC method for determination of ethoxyquin in feeds has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL and isocratic C18 reversed-phase chromatography with ammonium acetate buffer-acetonitrile as mobile phase and fluorescence detection.

The Nrf2 transcription factor contributes both to the basal expression of glutathione S-transferases in mouse liver and to their induction by the chemopreventive synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole and ethoxyquin.

Significantly, residual induction of GST by antioxidants is apparent in the Nrf2 mutant mouse, indicating the existence of an alternative mechanism of gene activation.