Levels of processing: A framework for memory research

  title={Levels of processing: A framework for memory research},
  author={Fergus I. M. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart},
  journal={Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior},
  • F. Craik, R. Lockhart
  • Published 1 December 1972
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior
This paper briefly reviews the evidence for multistore theories of memory and points out some difficulties with the approach. An alternative framework for human memory research is then outlined in terms of depth or levels of processing. Some current data and arguments are reexamined in the light of this alternative framework and implications for further research considered. 
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