Levels of organization in biology: on the nature and nomenclature of ecology's fourth level.

@article{Lidicker2007LevelsOO,
  title={Levels of organization in biology: on the nature and nomenclature of ecology's fourth level.},
  author={William Zander Lidicker},
  journal={Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society},
  year={2007},
  volume={83 1},
  pages={
          71-8
        }
}
Viewing the universe as being composed of hierarchically arranged systems is widely accepted as a useful model of reality. In ecology, three levels of organization are generally recognized: organisms, populations, and communities (biocoenoses). For half a century increasing numbers of ecologists have concluded that recognition of a fourth level would facilitate increased understanding of ecological phenomena. Sometimes the word "ecosystem" is used for this level, but this is arguably… CONTINUE READING
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