Levamisole in cocaine: unexpected news from an old acquaintance.

  title={Levamisole in cocaine: unexpected news from an old acquaintance.},
  author={Alexandre Larocque and Robert S Hoffman},
  journal={Clinical toxicology},
  volume={50 4},
Levamisole is a pharmaceutical with anthelminthic and immunomodulatory properties that was previously used in both animals and humans to treat inflammatory conditions and cancer. Levamisole has been identified as a cocaine adulterant in the United States since 2003. By 2009, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) estimated that 69% of the cocaine seized contained levamisole. The first case reports of complications related to levamisole in cocaine users were published in 2009… CONTINUE READING
Recent Discussions
This paper has been referenced on Twitter 9 times over the past 90 days. VIEW TWEETS


Publications citing this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 39 extracted citations


Publications referenced by this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 163 references

Necrotizing Pe- ripheral Vasculitis/Vasculopathy Following the Use of Cocaine Laced With Levamisole

  • SA, H Spiller, GM Bosse, JP Callen, GA. Franklin
  • J Burn Care Res
  • 2012

Tissue, and Bone: Case Report and Review of Literature

  • J Graf, K Lynch, CL Yeh, L Tartar, N Richman, T Nguyen
  • J Burn Care Res
  • 2012

induced occlusive necrotizing vasculitis in a pregnant woman after C

  • D Lung, K Lynch, S Agrawal, P Armenian, K. Banh
  • Clinical Toxicology vol. 50 no
  • 2012

A case of levamisole - induced 78 . systemic vasculitis and cocaine - induced midline destructive lesion : a case report

  • NA Zwang, LB VanWagner, S Rose
  • J Clin Rheumatol
  • 2011

Similar Papers

Loading similar papers…