• Corpus ID: 134019874

Lethal threshold : the evolutionary implications of Middle Pleistocene wooden spears

  title={Lethal threshold : the evolutionary implications of Middle Pleistocene wooden spears},
  author={Annemieke Giselle Milks},
  • A. Milks
  • Published 28 March 2018
  • Environmental Science
This thesis provides empirical data pertaining to the use of the earliest weapons in the archaeological record, which are a collection of plain wooden spears dating to the Middle Pleistocene. These weapons have been variously interpreted as objects for scavenging, hunting and self-defence. It is important to test these functional interpretations with a multi-disciplinary data-led approach, as these interpretations have implications for theories on the origins of human hunting, shifts in… 

A Review of Ethnographic Use of Wooden Spears and Implications for Pleistocene Hominin Hunting

Wooden spears are amongst the earliest weapons known from the archaeological record, with broken and complete examples known from Middle and Late Pleistocene Eurasian, Australian and South American

External ballistics of Pleistocene hand-thrown spears: experimental performance data and implications for human evolution

Results from a trial of trained javelin athletes provide new estimates for key performance parameters, and show that distance hunting was likely within the repertoire of hunting strategies of Neanderthals, and the resulting behavioural flexibility closely mirrors that of the authors' own species.

Late Quaternary Proboscidean Sites in Africa and Eurasia with Possible or Probable Evidence for Hominin Involvement

  • G. Haynes
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2022
This paper presents a list of >100 publicly known late Quaternary proboscidean sites that have certain or possible traces of hominin utilization in Africa, Europe, and Asia, along with a sample of



A review of the chronology of the European Middle Pleistocene hominid record

Over the last seventy years, European hominid fossils and associated archaeological remains have been dated by reference to the classical, fourfold glacial/interglacial subdivision of the

Throwing in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences from an analysis of humeral retroversion.

Excavations at Schöningen and paradigm shifts in human evolution.

Hunters of the Ice Age: The biology of Upper Paleolithic people.

  • B. HoltV. Formicola
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2008
Key studies about the biology of Upper Paleolithic populations are reviewed based primarily on European samples, but integrating information from other areas of the Old World whenever possible, to help clarify the effects of the Last Glacial Maximum.

The Hunters or the Hunted?: An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy

  • C. K. Brain
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Geological Magazine
  • 1983
"Amongst scientists involved [in taphonomy], C. K. Brain stands out as the pioneer; this impressive book is a statement of his investigations. . . . The Hunters or the Hunted? is a very important


  • P. VillaS. Soriano
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of Anthropological Research
  • 2010
Recent research has shown that Neanderthals were not inferior hunters and that their hunting weapons were similar to those used by broadly contemporaneous early modern human populations of South

Hunting and Hunting Weapons of the Lower and Middle Paleolithic of Europe

This paper is a review of the state of our knowledge and ignorance on Early, Middle, and Late Pleistocene subsistence behavior in Western Europe. There are undoubtedly differences in subsistence

The British Lower Palaeolithic of the early Middle Pleistocene

The use of mortality patterns in archaeological studies of hominid predatory adaptations

  • M. Stiner
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1990