Lethal Interactions Between Parasites and Prey Increase Niche Diversity in a Tropical Community

@article{Condon2014LethalIB,
  title={Lethal Interactions Between Parasites and Prey Increase Niche Diversity in a Tropical Community},
  author={Marty A. Condon and Sonja J. Scheffer and Matthew L. Lewis and Robert A. Jr. Wharton and Dean C. Adams and Andrew A. Forbes},
  journal={Science},
  year={2014},
  volume={343},
  pages={1240 - 1244}
}
Hidden Diversity Why are there so many species in the tropics? Niche partitioning by highly specialized plant species seems to be the main generator of high diversity. Condon et al. (p. 1240; see the Perspective by Godfray) show that niche partitioning can also be generated by interactions between plant resources and parasites, resulting in hyperdiverse communities. The cryptic diversity of 14 neotropical fly pollinators and 18 of their highly specific wasp parasites induced mortality… 

Host shifting and host sharing in a genus of specialist flies diversifying alongside their sunflower hosts

It is suggested that rapid and recent adaptive introgression and speciation in this group of plants may have instigated the diversification of their phytophagous fly associates, including the convergence of >1 species onto the same shared host plants.

Determinants of parasitoid communities of willow‐galling sawflies: habitat overrides physiology, host plant and space

The results indicate that barcode‐ and phylogeny‐based analyses of food webs that span forested vs. tundra or grassland environments could improve the understanding of vertical diversification effects in complex plant–herbivore–parasitoid networks.

Population Structuring and Phylogenetic Inference in a Species of Tropical Fly Using Double Digest Rad Markers

Double-digest restrictionassociated sequencing is used to examine population structure and phylogenetic relationships between individuals of Blepharoneura species 10, which uses multiple host plants and parts throughout its range and shows that, although the majority of divergence is linked to geographic location, host use may also contribute to differentiation.

Genetic differentiation associated with host plants and geography among six widespread species of South American Blepharoneura fruit flies (Tephritidae)

Tropical herbivorous insects are astonishingly diverse, and many are highly host‐specific. Much evidence suggests that herbivorous insect diversity is a function of host plant diversity; yet, the

Diversity, host ranges, and potential drivers of speciation among the inquiline enemies of oak gall wasps

It is clear that the North American Synergus have experienced several transitions among gall hosts and tree habitats and that host-use is correlated with reproductive isolation, though it remains too early to tell whether shifts to new hosts are the initiators of speciation events in Synergy inquilines of oak gall wasps, or if host shifts occur after reproductive isolation has already evolved.

Anatomy of a Neotropical insect radiation

It is suggested that most lineage origins occur in allopatry, usually without shifts in host-use, and that subsequent dispersal results in assembly of communities composed of multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations of flies that share the same hosts.

Patterns of temporal and enemy niche use by a community of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) coexisting on maples (Acer) as revealed by metabarcoding

It appears that niche partitioning is not necessary for closely related herbivores to stably coexist on shared hosts, and co‐occurrence without resource partitioning may provide an additional axis along which herbivorous insects attain increased species richness.

Unravelling mummies: cryptic diversity, host specificity, trophic and coevolutionary interactions in psyllid – parasitoid food webs

It is concluded that host specialisation, host codivergence and host switching are important factors driving the species diversity of endoparasitoid communities of specialist host herbivores.

Diversity, Host Ranges, and Potential Drivers of Speciation Among the Inquiline Enemies of Oak Gall Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

A large collection of Synergus reared from galls of 33 oak gall wasp species in the upper Midwestern United States is reported on, finding evidence that oak tree phylogeny and host gall morphology define axes of specialization for Synergy.

The roles of foraging environment, host species, and host diet for a generalist pupal parasitoid

Comparison of oviposition choice and offspring performance of a generalist pupal parasitoid on two congeneric hosts reared on two plant species found no evidence for associative learning by the parasitoids based on their natal host, so with respect to these host species they are truly generalist in their foraging behaviour.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 78 REFERENCES

Cascading host-associated genetic differentiation in parasitoids of phytophagous insects

The results suggest that cascading HAD could play an important role in the diversification of parasitoids attacking phytophagous insects, and the existence of cryptic host-associated lineages also suggests that the diversity of Parasitoids may be vastly underestimated.

Host specificity of Lepidoptera in tropical and temperate forests

It is suggested that greater specialization in tropical faunas is the result of differences in trophic interactions; for example, there are more distinct plant secondary chemical profiles from one tree species to the next in tropical forests than in temperate forests as well as more diverse and chronic pressures from natural enemy communities.

Why Are There So Many Species of Herbivorous Insects in Tropical Rainforests?

Findings suggest that the latitudinal gradient in insect species richness could be a direct function of plant diversity, which increased sevenfold from the authors' temperate to tropical study sites.

Sequential Sympatric Speciation Across Trophic Levels

It is reported that the parasitic wasp Diachasma alloeum has formed new incipient species as a result of specializing on diversifying fly hosts, including the recently derived apple-infesting race of R. pomonella.

Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections

DNA barcoded 2,597 parasitoid wasps belonging to 6 microgastrine braconid genera reared from parapatric tropical dry forest, cloud forest, and rain forest in northwestern Costa Rica and combined these data with records of caterpillar hosts and morphological analyses to result in a much more fine-scaled understanding of Parasitoid diversity and host specificity.

Hidden Neotropical Diversity: Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts

It is suggested that neotropical herbivorous insect diversity is not simply a function of plant taxonomic and architectural diversity, but also reflects the geographic distribution of hosts and the age and area of the neotropics.

Geographic Patterns in the Evolution of Resistance and Virulence in Drosophila and Its Parasitoids

It is found no evidence for genotype‐specific virulence and defense, which makes “Red Queen”–type coevolution unlikely, and the most important explanation for the patterns is geographic differences in host‐parasitoid community structure.

The tri-trophic niche concept and adaptive radiation of phytophagous insects

It is argued that bi- and tri-trophic niche concepts have different implications for understanding herbivore community structure, population divergence, and evolutionary diversification of phytophagous insects.

BUTTERFLIES AND PLANTS: A STUDY IN COEVOLUTION

The relationship between butterflies and their food plants is investigated, the examination of patterns of interaction between two major groups of organisms with a close and evident ecological relationship, such as plants and herbivores.

Unprecedented ichneumonid parasitoid wasp diversity in tropical forests

It is shown with primary data that the species richness of Ichneumonidae is markedly underestimated in tropical areas and that latitudinal diversity patterns in the family remain uncharacterized, and the true extent of tropical orthocentrine diversity is revealed.
...