Lessons from Chinese History: Translation as a Collaborative and Multi-Stage Process

  title={Lessons from Chinese History: Translation as a Collaborative and Multi-Stage Process},
  author={James St. Andr{\'e}},
This paper examines how the development of translation practice under the influence of Buddhism, and also in the late Qing (1890-1911), serve to highlight two neglected areas of research in Translation Studies. First, there is the issue of the extent to which translation is a collaborative process. In both time periods, collaboration among 2 to 1000 people was the norm. Yet the models proposed in “classic” Translation Studies in the twentieth century theorized the translation process as being… Expand
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