Lessons Learned from Deep-Sea Mining

  title={Lessons Learned from Deep-Sea Mining},
  author={G. Glasby},
  pages={551 - 553}
The first attempt to exploit deep-sea manganese nodules ended in failure as a result of the collapse of world metal prices, the onerous provisions imposed by the U. N. Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and the overoptimistic assumptions about the viability of nodule mining. Attention then focused on cobalt-rich manganese crusts from seamounts. Since the mid-1980s, a number of new players have committed themselves to long-term programs to establish the viability of mining deep-sea… Expand
Deep-Sea Nodules and Co-rich Mn Crusts
The mining of deep-sea manganese nodules has been a topic of interest since J.L. Mero undertook his preliminary studies in the 1960s to evaluate the prospects for mining deep-sea nodules. Despite theExpand
A historical perspective on deep-sea mining for manganese nodules, 1965–2019
Abstract Of late, there has been a rise in interest in deep-sea minerals such as manganese nodules. Commercial mining operations to extract such minerals may commence soon. However, deep-sea miningExpand
Precautionary management of deep-sea mining
Interest in deep-sea mining developed in the early 1970s, with a focus on manganese nodules in international waters. Mining may actually occur first, however, on rich polymetallic sulfide depositsExpand
Metals and materials from deep sea nodules: an outlook for the future
Abstract The global data on manganese reserves apparently indicate that there is no resource crunch. However, a large part of the terrestrial deposits (80%) do not meet the grade requirement forExpand
The economics of mining seabed manganese nodules: A case study of the Indian Ocean nodule field
Abstract Because of ever-growing demand for strategic metals, the focus of the international community has fallen on deep sea manganese nodules occurring at a water depth of more than 4500 m. WeExpand
The changing vision of marine minerals
Abstract Non-fuel marine minerals are reviewed from the perspective of resources and their value as active analogs that can advance understanding of types of ancient ore deposits that formed inExpand
Sea-floor tectonics and submarine hydrothermal systems
The discovery of metal-depositing hot springs on the sea floor, and especially their link to chemosynthetic life, was among the most compelling and significant scientific advances of the twentiethExpand
Dynamics of formation of ferromanganese nodules in the Indian Ocean
Abstract The ferromanganese nodule resources of the Indian Ocean Nodule Field (IONF) are second only in the world in terms of metal content and abundance. Since it was made known by Mero (1965) thatExpand
Author ' s personal copy The changing vision of marine minerals
Non-fuel marine minerals are reviewed from the perspective of resources and their value as active analogs that can advance understanding of types of ancient ore deposits that formed in marineExpand
Next-generation technology for ocean resources exploration (Zipangu-in-the-Ocean) project in Japan
An overview of national exploration and exploitation projects for seabed mineral resources in Japan are presented to discuss the challenges and goals of these projects. Their main targets areExpand


Handbook of marine mineral deposits
Preface Introduction-D. S. Cronan Marine Placer Deposits and Sea Level Changes- H. Kudrass Heavy Mineral on the Indian Continental Shelf- G.V. Rajamanickam Tin Placer Deposits on Continental ShelvesExpand
Seabed Mlinerals and the Law of the Sea
The only minerals from the deep ocean floor for which there are reasonably good prospects of production within the next decade are the metalliferous muds from some of the deeps in the Red Sea and nodules in the northeastern equatorial Pacific that contain recoverable metals. Expand
Marine Cobalt Resources
Crusts contain cobalt, manganese, and platinum, three of the four priority strategic metals for the United States, and unlike abyssal nodules, whose recovery is complicated by their dominant location in international waters, some of the most cobalt-rich crusts occur within the exclusive economic zone of the United states and other nations. Expand
Marine mineral resources
1. Introduction 2. Law of the Sea 3. Unclos III Convention and Alternatives: The View of Governments and Industry 4. Minerals of the Deep Seabed 5. Technology and Economics of Deep Seabed Minerals 6.Expand
Marine manganese deposits
The mineral resources of the sea