author={Alan J. A. McBride and Daniel Abensur Athanazio and Mitermayer Galv{\~a}o dos Reis and Albert I. Ko},
  journal={Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases},
Purpose of review Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease, has been recognized as an important emerging infectious disease in the last 10 years. This review addresses the issues in the epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical management which confront public health responses, and highlights the progress made towards understanding the Leptospira genome, biology and pathogenesis. Recent findings Leptospirosis has spread from its traditional rural base to become the cause of epidemics in poor… 

A Study of Leptospirosis Epidemiology in Iran and Diagnostic Techniques for Human, Livestock and Environment Samples

The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and diagnosis of leptospirosis in Iran with a focus on northern areas of Iran, which are suitable for pathogenic Leptospira and outbreak of the disease.

Leptospirosis in pregnancy: A systematic review

The first systematic review of leptospirosis in pregnancy clearly shows the need to improve early diagnosis and treatment by asking early, treating early, and reporting well.

Leptospirosis and Weil’s Syndrome

The two main mechanisms that have been associated with kidney injury by Leptospira are direct nephrotoxic action of the microorganism and toxin effect with immune response induction and indirect effects such as dehydration, rhabdomyolysis, and hypoxia due to hemodynamic changes.

Prevalence of Leptospira Infection in Rodents from Bangladesh

It is indicated that human exposure to pathogenic Leptospira may be considerable, also in places where food (rice) is stored for longer times and the need to improve rodent management at such locations is emphasized.

Risk factors associated with leptospirosis in swine in state of Pernambuco, Brazil

The risk factors found in this study played an important role in the agent dissemination and should be avoided in a way to control the disease in the herds studied.

The role of leptospiremia and specific immune response in severe leptospirosis

A highLeptospiremia, pNGAL, and IL-6 level at baseline were associated with severe leptospirosis, and there were statistically significant associations with the severity of the disease.

Leptospirosis as a cause of fever associated with jaundice in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

It is shown that leptospirosis is likely an overlooked cause of unexplained cases of fever with jaundice in the DRC and highlights the need to consider leptosphereirosis in the differential diagnosis of feverWithJaundice, particularly in young adult males.

Assessment of Risk Factors in Synanthropic and Wild Rodents Infected by Pathogenic Leptospira spp. Captured in Southern Chile

Assessment of infection status and risk factors associated with pathogenic Leptospira in synanthropic and wild rodent species and histopathological lesions in several organs from naturally infected animals found a lower risk of infection in the fall compared to the rest of the seasons.

Discovery of Leptospira spp. seroreactive peptides using ORFeome phage display

This analysis lends further support for using ORFeome phage display to identify pathogen-associated immunogenic peptides and suggests that this technique holds promise for the development of peptide-based diagnostics for leptospirosis and, possibly, of vaccines against this pathogen.



Leptospirosis: a zoonotic disease of global importance.

Urban epidemic of severe leptospirosis in Brazil. Salvador Leptospirosis Study Group.

An epidemic of leptospirosis has become a major urban health problem, associated with high mortality, and diagnostic confusion with dengue fever prevents timely intervention that could minimise mortality.

The importance of leptospirosis in Southeast Asia.

The wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms associated with probable, acute, leptospiral infections contributes to the potential of significant underreporting.

An outbreak of leptospirosis among Peruvian military recruits.

This outbreak of acute undifferentiated febrile illness among Peruvian military recruits that developed after a training exercise in the high jungle rainforest of Peru was due to leptospirosis.

Environmental Exposure and Leptospirosis, Peru

Human exposure to Leptospira in the Iquitos region is high, likely related both to the ubiquity of leptospires in the environment and human behavior conducive to transmission from infected zoonotic sources.

Clinical spectrum of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis in a region of endemicity, with quantification of leptospiral burden.

  • E. SeguraC. Ganoza J. Vinetz
  • Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2005
This study demonstrates the underdiagnosis of leptospirosis in a region of high endemicity and the underrecognition of grave pulmonary complications and should be initiated immediately in the appropriate epidemiological and clinical context.

Leptospiral Proteins Recognized during the Humoral Immune Response to Leptospirosis in Humans

The findings indicate that leptospiral proteins recognized during natural infection are potentially useful for serodiagnosis and may serve as targets for vaccine design.

Concurrent outbreak of leptospirosis and dengue in Mumbai, India, 2002.

The study shows that a concurrent outbreak of leptospirosis and dengue had occurred in the slums of Mumbai city.

Unique physiological and pathogenic features of Leptospira interrogans revealed by whole-genome sequencing

The complete genomic sequence of a representative virulent serovar type strain (Lai) of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae is reported, consisting of a 4.33-megabase large chromosome and a 359-kilobase small chromosome, with a total of 4,768 predicted genes.

An observational study to detect leptospirosis in Mumbai, India, 2000

Leptospirosis should be suspected in febrile children with contact with flood water with a sensitivity of 100%, and the presence of conjunctival suffusion, abdominal pain, and skin rash had a specificity of 97%, 86%, and 97%, respectively, for identifying children with leptosp irosis.