Lenses in Antiquity

  title={Lenses in Antiquity},
  author={G. S. Sines and Yannis Sakellarakis},
  journal={American Journal of Archaeology},
  pages={191 - 196}
A recent find in the Idaean Cave in Crete of two rock crystal lenses of unusually good optical quality led to this investigation of other lenses from antiquity. The evidence indicates that the use of lenses was widespread throughout the Middle East and the Mediterranean basin over several millennia. The quality of some of these lenses was sufficient to permit their use as magnifying glasses. The use of lenses as burning glasses in Classical Greece is noted, as is the need for magnifying lenses… 

Ancient lenses in art and sculpture and the objects viewed through them, dating back 4500 years

The author has sought to address the problem by identifying lens elements (mainly convex/plano) which remain associated with objects intended to be viewed through them (i.e., in their original context) which are found in museums in sculptures, rings, pendants, etc.

In Search of the Earliest Known Lenses (Dating Back 4500 Years)

Early lens history is controversial. First lenses arose among the artisan/artist communities rather than among the scientific community. These lenses were not used for visual corrections. The author

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Two magnifying lenses of the Archaic period from the recent Cretan excavations gave the opportunity to discuss the problem of their medical use, and two drop-bottles from the excavations on Cyprus and at Tanagra seem to be of medical, and possible ophthalmological, use.

Under the Microscope: The Evolution of Surgical Loupes

The Greco-Roman history of the magnifying lens, its subsequent application to corrective eyewear centuries later, and the multiple ground-breaking advancements of the compound lens microscope are explored, allowing an appreciation for the millennia of development that led to such instrumental modern-day technology.

Three Seventh-Century B. C. E. Hoards of Silver Jewelry from Tel Miqne-Ekron

  • A. GolaniB. Sass
  • History, Art
    Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
  • 1998
Three silver jewelry hoards dated to the seventh century B. C. E. were found at Tel Miqne-Ekron during the 1985, 1988, and 1992 excavation seasons. These hoards are important for three reasons.


We put forward the working hypothesis that the heliocentric, rather than the geocentric view, of the Solar System was the essential belief of the early Greek philosophers and astronomers. Although

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A review article looks at the different optical aspects and clinical consequences of MIOLs/EDOF IOLs to help surgeons find an appropriate solution for each of their individual patients.

Luxury Board Games for the Northern Greek Elite

  • D. Ignatiadou
  • History
    Archimède. Archéologie et histoire ancienne
  • 2019
Board games were played in ancient Greece since at least the Bronze Age. Written sources distinguish between two main types of board games, πeττeία (games with counters only) and κυβeία (games with

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Aristotle was the first Greek author trying to give an explanation of the optical defects of vision. Within the framework of his theory of vision and with the help of numerous empirical observations


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  • D. Hogarth
  • History
    The Journal of Hellenic Studies
  • 1908
for the failure of the original plan of campaign at Plataea, a fact which is obscured in the pages of Herodotus, who follows a biassed Athenian account of the battle. The work is completed by six