Lenition inhibition in Liverpool English

  title={Lenition inhibition in Liverpool English},
  author={Patrick Honeybone},
  journal={English Language and Linguistics},
  pages={213 - 249}
  • Patrick Honeybone
  • Published 25 September 2001
  • Linguistics
  • English Language and Linguistics
This article integrates aspects of synchronic and diachronic phonological theory with points relevant to the study of a nonreference accent in order to investigate the patterns of consonantal lenition found in the variety of English spoken in Liverpool, England. Points of contact with variationist approaches are addressed, partly because the lenitions are variable processes. An implicational understanding of lenition is developed, thanks to which it is possible to describe the prosodic and… 
The realisation of final /t/ in Liverpool English.
It is claimed that function words are the only monosyllabic words that exhibit the lenition and that /t/ → [h] can also occur in many polysyllabic Words but only in a very restricted set of lexical and phonological environments.
Consonant lenition and phonological recategorization
We examine the weakening of intervocalic voiceless stops in Spanish in order to gain insight on historical processes of intervocalic lenition. In our corpus, about a third of all tokens of
Acoustic and Sociolinguistics Aspects of Lenition in Liverpool English
This study concerns the phonological process of lenition occurring in Liverpool English, i.e. Scouse. In particular, we will provide an acoustic analysis of the process, taking into account also some
The Concept of Lenition as the Phonemic Linguistic Phenomena
The term 'lenition’ has numerous definitions offered in the Phonology of English language, some of which will be discussed in this study. Moreover, “Spirantization”, “approximantization”,
Salience and the sociolinguistics of Scouse spelling
In this article we investigate a phenomenon in which non-standard spelling is normal in professionally produced, published English. Speci1cally, we discuss the literary genre of Contemporary Humorous
Diachronic evidence in segmental phonology: the case of obstruent laryngeal specifications
1 This paper is a development of material from Honeybone (2001/2002). Versions of (some of) the material discussed here have been presented at the First Old World Conference in Phonology in Leiden,
Lenition, fortition and the status of plosive affrication: the case of spontaneous RP English /t/*
It is argued that the phonetic and phonological characteristics of /t/-affrication presented in this paper are consistent with an account in terms of fortition rather than lenition.
Turn-final plosives and turn-taking in Liverpool English: an alternative to lenition
This study examines the use of turn-final variation in the plosives of Liverpool English in an interactional context. Naturally occurring talk is analysed for phonetic cues that participants use and
Laryngeal enhancement in early Germanic
This paper builds on growing evidence that aspirated or fortis obstruents in languages like English and German are laryngeally marked, but that phonetic voicing in the (unmarked) unaspirated or lenis
Salience and the sociolinguistics of Scouse spelling: Exploring the phonology of the Contemporary Humorous Localised Dialect Literature of Liverpool
In this article we investigate a phenomenon in which non-standard spelling is normal in professionally produced, published English. Specifically, we discuss the literary genre of Contemporary


Scouse : the urban dialect of Liverpool
A brief consideration of field-work is followed by a general discussion of Scouse, and the main problem for description is found to be the phonology rather than the grammar or the vocabulary. In
Descriptive adequacy in phonology: a variationist perspective
This paper offers a variationist critique of aspects of phonological theory and method, focusing on advances in descriptive methods and highlighting the problems that need to be addressed in
Coronal segments in Irish English
  • R. Hickey
  • Linguistics
    Journal of Linguistics
  • 1984
One of the most salient differences between Irish English and Standard English (in the sense of Received Pronunciation, Gimson, 1980:89 ff.) lies in the realization of coronal segments. I use this
What is lenition?
  • L. Bauer
  • Linguistics
    Journal of Linguistics
  • 1988
Most phonological textbooks and treatises do not define lenition or weakening, as it is also called. Instead they provide a list of examples of processes which they wish to term ‘lenitions’ or
I blame the government
Licensing Inheritance: an integrated theory of neutralisation.
In vowel systems, for example, it is quite usual to find that the maximal inventory of oppositions is restricted to prosodically prominent nuclei, while shrunken subsystems of various shapes and sizes show up in weak positions.
Aspiration and laryngeal representation in Germanic
The phonetic gesture of stop consonant aspiration, which is predictable in a Germanic language such as English, has been described traditionally as ranging from a ‘puff of air’ upon release of
Lexical Phonology and the distribution of German [ ç ] and [ x ]
This paper examines the distribution of the palatal fricative [ç] and the velar fricative [x] in Modern Standard German. The data are significant with respect to the theory of Lexical Phonology
Segmental complexity and phonological government
A condition on phonological representations which requires that a segment occupying a governed position be no more complex than its governor is discussed, where complexity is straightforwardly calculated in terms of the number of elements of which a segment is composed.
The internal structure of phonological elements: a theory of charm and government *
This article elaborate in some detail a theory of phonological representations embedded within a parametric framework, and applies this theory to a particular vowel system which displays some rather interesting properties.