Lenalidomide in the treatment of multiple myeloma: a review

  title={Lenalidomide in the treatment of multiple myeloma: a review},
  author={Xavier Armoiry and G. Aulagner and Thierry Facon},
  journal={Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics},
Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug derived from thalidomide. It was developed to maximize the anti‐inflammatory and anti‐neoplasic properties of thalidomide and to reduce its toxicity. The molecular mechanism of action of lenalidomide is unclear, but its therapeutic activity is mainly due to its well defined anti‐inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti‐proliferative and anti‐angiogenic properties. In relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM), lenalidomide, combined with standard dose… 

Current treatment strategies with lenalidomide in multiple myeloma and future perspectives.

The drug is currently being investigated for the treatment of newly diagnosed myeloma and, in association with chemotherapy drugs or novel agents, for the development of highly active combination regimens.

Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics, preclinical, and clinical efficacy of lenalidomide for the treatment of multiple myeloma

Lenalidomide-related adverse events can be controlled with dose reductions, supportive therapy, and appropriate prophylaxis, and its remarkable anticancer activity is confirmed, alone or combined with high- or low-dose dexamethasone, or other drugs.

Lenalidomide in multiple myeloma: current experimental and clinical data

Its long‐term tolerability profile appears favorable although an increased risk in new malignancies in patients receiving LEN as maintenance post‐stem cell transplant warrants some caution, with follow-up studies being important in determining the long-term implications of this observation.

Lenalidomide and thalidomide in the treatment of chronic pain

Lenalidomide has a more favorable adverse effect profile compared to its parent compound thalidomides, however, both agents have significant potential adverse effects and evidence of efficacy for chronic pain syndromes such as CRPS remains limited.


The lenalidomide has possibility of being used as an adjuvant in support of more specific immunotherapeutic interventions including cancer chemotherapy, anticancer vaccines and adoptively transferred cells which warrants further investigation.

The addition of cyclophosphamide to lenalidomide and dexamethasone in multiply relapsed/refractory myeloma patients; a phase I/II study

Lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone is a safe, effective combination in relapsed/refractory myeloma inducing a high response rate, warranting further investigation in phase III trials.

Synergistic Effect of Some Chemotherapeutic Drugs with Gamma Radiation on the Proliferation of Myeloma Cells

Treatment of myeloma cells with dual therapy (Lenalidomide-Dexamethasone as a chemotherapy with γ-irradiation as a radiotherapy) resulted in synergistic effect for treatment of multiple myelomas, increasing the growth inhibition, apoptosis, and regression of tumors compared to either treatment agent alone.

Clinical Trials of Drug – Thalidomide, and Its Derivatives

In the clinic, I am following (114) patients suffering from Multiple Myeloma, treated with a single dose capsule daily containing (50- 100 mg) of the drug, andHPLC – Technique is used for the determination of molecules.

Characterization of haematological parameters with bortezomib–melphalan–prednisone versus melphalan–prednisone in newly diagnosed myeloma, with evaluation of long‐term outcomes and risk of thromboembolic events with use of erythropoiesis‐stimulating agents: analysis of the VISTA trial

Bortezomib did not add to melphalan haematological toxicity and concomitant ESA use with VMP/MP in previously untreated MM patients did not adversely affect TTP or OS, or increase thromboembolic risk.



Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone for relapsed multiple myeloma in North America.

Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone is superior to placebo plus DexamethAsone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide treatment for newly diagnosed myeloma: a report from the GIMEMA--Italian Multiple Myeloma Network.

  • A. PalumboP. Falco M. Petrucci
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • 2007
Oral MPR therapy is a promising first-line treatment for elderly myeloma patients and aspirin appears to provide adequate antithrombosis prophylaxis.

Lenalidomide and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: safety and efficacy.

  • R. BazE. Walker M. Hussein
  • Medicine
    Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • 2006
The combination of lenalidomide and DVd chemotherapy was well tolerated and resulted in high response rates in this mostly refractory patient population, and Evaluation of this combination in newly diagnosed patients is warranted.

Lenalidomide (Revlimid™), Adriamycin and Dexamethasone Chemotherapy (RAD) Is Safe and Effective in Treatment of Relapsed Multiple Myeloma - First Results of a German Multicenter Phase I/II Trial.

It is concluded that RAD induces substantial remission with an acceptable toxicity profile and thus significantly contributes to the therapeutic armamentarium even in heavily pretreated myeloma pts.

Lenalidomide in Combination with Dexamethasone Is More Effective Than Dexamethasone at First Relapse in Relapsed Multiple Myeloma.

Data support the use of lenalidomide/dexamethasone for patients as second-line therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, and provide higher response rates and improved TTP compared with dexamethAsone at first relapse and beyond.

New drugs for myeloma.

Clinical data available from studies of these drugs in the treatment of newly diagnosed and advanced multiple myeloma are focused on, with a view to assessing the safety and activity of combinations integrating these other novel agents.

Comparison of lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone to dexamethasone alone in patients who have received prior thalidomide in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

  • M. WangR. Knight D. Weber
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • 2006
Multivariate analysis indicates that Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone is more effective than dexamETHasone-placebo regardless of prior thalidomides in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

A Multicenter, Single-Arm, Open-Label Study To Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Single-Agent Lenalidomide in Patients with Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Prelininary Results.

Oral lenalidomide in relapsed and refractory MM patients achieved PR+CR in 25%, stable disease or better in 71%, a median TTP of approximately 6 months and a median survival that has not been reached.

Immunomodulatory drug CC-5013 overcomes drug resistance and is well tolerated in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma.

This study provides the basis for the evaluation of CC-5013, either alone or in combination, to treat patients with MM at earlier stages of disease and shows no significant somnolence, constipation, or neuropathy has been seen in any cohort.

Combination therapy with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (Rev/Dex) for newly diagnosed myeloma.

Rev/Dex is a highly active regimen with manageable side effects in the treatment of newly diagnosed myeloma, and thirty-one of 34 patients achieved an objective response, resulting in an overall objective response rate of 91%.