Leishmaniasis: drug resistance and natural products (review).

  title={Leishmaniasis: drug resistance and natural products (review).},
  author={Tilman Polonio and Thomas Efferth},
  journal={International journal of molecular medicine},
  volume={22 3},
Epidemics of fatal visceral leishmaniasis caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania are a severe public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One major drawback in the treatment of leishmaniasis is the emergence of resistance to current chemotherapeutics. Leishmanicidals have to be administered in low doses since commonly used drugs exhibit severe side effects, and hence drug resistance can appear rapidly. Since, to date, vaccination approaches have failed to… 

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Leishmaniasis: Current Status of Vaccine Development
  • E. Handman
  • Biology, Medicine
    Clinical Microbiology Reviews
  • 2001
A major vaccine development program aimed initially at cutaneous leishmaniasis is under way, and focuses on new adjuvants, including cytokines, and delivery systems to target the T helper type 1 immune responses required for the elimination of this intracellular organism.