Leishmania major peroxidase (LmP) exhibits both ascorbate and cytochrome c peroxidase activities. Our previous results illustrated that LmP has a much higher activity against horse heart cytochrome c than ascorbate, suggesting that cytochrome c may be the biologically important substrate. To elucidate the biological function of LmP, we have recombinantly expressed, purified, and determined the 2.08 Å crystal structure of L. major cytochrome c (LmCytc). Like other types of cytochrome c, LmCytc has an electropositive surface surrounding the exposed heme edge that serves as the site of docking with redox partners. Kinetic assays performed with LmCytc and LmP show that LmCytc is a much better substrate for LmP than horse heart cytochrome c. Furthermore, unlike the well-studied yeast system, the reaction follows classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics and is sensitive to an increasing ionic strength. Using the yeast cocrystal as a control, protein-protein docking was performed using Rosetta to develop a model for the binding of LmP and LmCytc. These results suggest that the biological function of LmP is to act as a cytochrome c peroxidase.