Legal Dualism and the Bipolar State

@article{Santos2016LegalDA,
  title={Legal Dualism and the Bipolar State},
  author={Cec{\'i}lia MacDowell Santos},
  journal={Latin American Perspectives},
  year={2016},
  volume={43},
  pages={172 - 189}
}
  • C. Santos
  • Published 1 March 2016
  • Sociology
  • Latin American Perspectives
The Brazilian state has contradictory laws, policies and practices with regard to the rights of indigenous peoples. Despite the adoption of a democratic Brazilian constitution in 1988 that incorporated a multicultural conception of indigenous rights and the subsequent ratification of new international norms of human rights for indigenous peoples, the practices of the courts and of the various sectors of the state reflect a legal cultural dualism and a “bipolar” state. The case of the Xucuru… 
Voices from the Past: Conceptualizing a “Fifth World”
There are thousands of extant indigenous societies in the world today whose voices are faint, garbled, and too often suppressed. These societies are seen as constituting a “Fourth World,” generally

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