Left ventricular apical puncture: a procedure surviving well into the new millennium.


We report two patients with a history of prior mitral valve and aortic valve replacement with St. Jude prosthetic valves, who were referred for repeat valve replacement after noninvasive assessment was suggestive of prosthetic valve malfunction. Both patients were managed medically after evaluation with direct left ventricular apical puncture revealed… (More)


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