The insular cortex is involved in cardiac regulation. The left insula is predominantly responsible for parasympathetic cardiovascular effects. Damage to this area could shift cardiovascular balance towards increased basal sympathetic tone (a proarrhythmic condition) and contribute to the excess cardiac mortality following stroke. Acute left insular stroke increased basal cardiac sympathetic tone and was associated with a decrease in randomness of heart rate variability. In addition, phase relationships between heart rate and blood pressure were disturbed, implying a disruption of oscillators involved in cardiovascular control. The insula appears to be involved in human heart rate regulation and damage to it may encourage a pro-arrhythmic state.