Learning to read: an unnatural act

  title={Learning to read: an unnatural act},
  author={Philip B. Gough and Michael L. Hillinger},
  journal={Bulletin of the Orton Society},
The six-year-old's sight is as good as the adult's (Amigo 1972), and his hearing is nearly so (Elliott and Katz 1980). The child has an excellent memory (Mandler, in press), and his learning ability is remarkable. Even a conservative estimate of the size of his vocabulary will show that he must have learned, on average, more than four new words every day since his first birthday (Carey 1978). He has already learned to speak and understand his native language with remarkable fluency. The average… 
Introduction to the special issue on cognitive science of text
  • J. Arciuli
  • Education
    Journal of Neurolinguistics
  • 2009
How children learn to read and why they fail
  • P. Gough
  • Education, Linguistics
    Annals of dyslexia
  • 1996
It is argued that the comprehension aspect of reading depends on those same—natural—forces that govern acquisition of spoken language, whereas decoding depends on explicit tutelage, with little evidence that children will induce the cipher from simple exposure to written words and their pronunciations.
Development of the ability to read words: Update.
Although written English displays three types of units that make contact with readers’ knowledge of language, letters, words, and sentences, readers’ eyes come to favor words as the units that are
The Role of Decoding in Learning to Read.
c5_red_part_roleofdecod.pdf As anyone knows who has both read to young children and watched them begin learning to read, there is a great difference in the sophistication of their abilities in the
Two Paradoxes of Phonics.
There is a good deal of evidence to show that phonics should play an im portant role in early reading instruc tion. A number of recent reviews conclude that early, explicit phonics teaching leads to
The connection between phonological, syntactic and semantic skills and children’s reading and spelling
In recent years two radically different views have dominated discussions about the way in which children learn to read and write. The first view is that the crucial hurdle in learning to read is the
Procedures for word learning: Making discoveries about words
any first graders appear to make discoveries about words and learn to read without explicit instruction. Being read to, reading and rereading favorite books, inventing spellings, and composing text
Children's use of analogy in reading and spelling
It is concluded that spelling-sound consistency only affects children's use of analogies in reading and that children should be taught to use analogies to read and spell new words.
Young Children Use Letter Names in Learning to Read Words
Most theories of reading development claim that young children are logographic, or prealphabetic, readers, unable to take advantage of the systematic links between spellings and sounds that exist in
The study reported on here investigated the ability of 49 second‐grade pupils to listen to, infer and produce the correct pronunciations of 14 high‐frequency words given in a story‐like context. The


The child as word learner
concepts of reference point and polarity, which presuppose concepts of dimension of comparison and zero point. These concepts can be probed nonlinguistically. For example, animals can be taught to
American Children with Reading Problems Can Easily Learn to Read English Represented by Chinese Characters
With 2.5 to 5.5 hours of tutoring, eight second-grade inner-city school children with clear reading disability were taught to read English material written as 30 different Chinese characters, eliminating certain general interpretations of dyslexia.
1. Segmentation of the spoken word and reading acquisition
The purpose of this study was to determine how well children can identify the number of phonemic segments in spoken words and how this compares with their ability to deal similarly with syllables.
Summary. This study is concerned with the development of the ability to make a simple phonetic analysis of the spoken word. It describes the performance of children at different levels of mental
The acquisition of syntax in children from 5 to 10
This study is concerned with the general question of the extent to which children between the age of 5 and 10 have achieved mastery of their native language, and explores areas of disparity between
Understanding Reading: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read, Sixth Edition
The sixth edition of the Sixth Edition of The Essence of Reading focuses on reading, writing, and Thinking, and on the importance of knowing the meaning of words.
Individual Vocabulary and Semantic Currency: A Preliminary Study
A vocabulary test, whose items are chosen by random sampling of a large dictionary and which can therefore afford estimates of vocabulary on an absolute basis, is described and the data obtained on a
Pre-School Children's Knowledge of English Phonology.
The author suggests that some preschool children have an unconscious knowledge of aspects of the sound system of English; that these children tacitly organize phonetic segments into categories
Foetus into Man: Physical Growth from Conception to Maturity
Professor Tanner tells the story of growth in language that is both accessible to the nonbiologist and acceptable to the biologist, and builds on the basics of growth to provide a picture of individual growth--from the fetus in utero to the development of sex differences at puberty.
  • G. Amigo
  • Medicine
    American journal of optometry and archives of American Academy of Optometry
  • 1972
The visuo‐sensory apparatus of the human infant has been shown to be much more advanced at birth than was formerly believed, and it attains near‐normal capacity much earlier than investigators prior to 1950 believed.