Learning potentiates neurophysiological and behavioral placebo analgesic responses

  title={Learning potentiates neurophysiological and behavioral placebo analgesic responses},
  author={Luana Colloca and Michele Tinazzi and Serena Recchia and Domenica Le Pera and Massimiliano Valeriani},
Placebo analgesia induced by social observational learning
Classical conditioning without verbal suggestions elicits placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia
It appears that a hidden conditioning procedure, without any explicit verbal suggestions, elicits placebo and nocebo effects, however it is found no evidence that these effects are predicted by either expectancy or fear.
Cognitive changes as a result of a single exposure to placebo
Placebo-Induced Changes in Excitatory and Inhibitory Corticospinal Circuits during Motor Performance
Findings hint at a top-down, cognitive enhancement of corticospinal excitability as a neural signature of placebo modulation of motor performance by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex.
The Influence of Placebo Analgesia Manipulations on Pain Report, the Nociceptive Flexion Reflex, and Autonomic Responses to Pain.
Failure to Find a Conditioned Placebo Analgesic Response
It has been suggested that conditioned placebo responses are stronger in females, and this hypothesis was investigated, and the placebo capsules were rated as effective painkillers, but this did not translate into a placebo analgesic effect.


Conscious Expectation and Unconscious Conditioning in Analgesic, Motor, and Hormonal Placebo/Nocebo Responses
The effects of opposing verbal suggestions on experimental ischemic arm pain in healthy volunteers and on motor performance in Parkinsonian patients are analyzed and found that verbally induced expectations of analgesia/hyperalgesia and motor improvement/worsening antagonized completely the effects of a conditioning procedure.
Placebo analgesia is not due to compliance or habituation: EEG and behavioural evidence
The results indicate that the reduction in pain during experimental placebo response is unlikely to be due to sensory habituation or compliance with the experimental instructions.
Conditioned placebo responses.
It is suggested that placebo responses are conditionable in the laboratory in both a positive and negative direction.
How prior experience shapes placebo analgesia
Somatotopic Activation of Opioid Systems by Target-Directed Expectations of Analgesia
Findings show that a spatially directed expectation of pain reduction is capable of inducing a specific effect only on the part of the body which is the target of the expectation, and suggests that a highly organized and somatotopic network of endogenous opioids links expectation, attention, and body schema.
Association and dissociation between laser‐evoked potentials and pain perception
While laser vertex potentials may reflect attentional/perceptual mechanisms that determine subjective experience, the middle-latency NP160 behaves as a pre-Perceptual sensory response that should be advantageous in the assessment of early cortical pain processing.
Placebo effects in laser-evoked pain potentials
Neuropharmacological Dissection of Placebo Analgesia: Expectation-Activated Opioid Systems versus Conditioning-Activated Specific Subsystems
The findings show that cognitive factors and conditioning are balanced in different ways in placebo analgesia, and this balance is crucial for the activation of opioid or nonopioid systems.