Learning potentiates neurophysiological and behavioral placebo analgesic responses

@article{Colloca2008LearningPN,
  title={Learning potentiates neurophysiological and behavioral placebo analgesic responses},
  author={Luana Colloca and Michele Tinazzi and Serena Recchia and Domenica Le Pera and Massimiliano Valeriani},
  journal={PAIN},
  year={2008},
  volume={139},
  pages={306-314}
}
Placebo analgesia induced by social observational learning
Classical conditioning without verbal suggestions elicits placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia
TLDR
It appears that a hidden conditioning procedure, without any explicit verbal suggestions, elicits placebo and nocebo effects, however it is found no evidence that these effects are predicted by either expectancy or fear.
Cognitive changes as a result of a single exposure to placebo
Placebo-Induced Changes in Excitatory and Inhibitory Corticospinal Circuits during Motor Performance
TLDR
Findings hint at a top-down, cognitive enhancement of corticospinal excitability as a neural signature of placebo modulation of motor performance by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex.
The Influence of Placebo Analgesia Manipulations on Pain Report, the Nociceptive Flexion Reflex, and Autonomic Responses to Pain.
Failure to Find a Conditioned Placebo Analgesic Response
TLDR
It has been suggested that conditioned placebo responses are stronger in females, and this hypothesis was investigated, and the placebo capsules were rated as effective painkillers, but this did not translate into a placebo analgesic effect.
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TLDR
The findings show that cognitive factors and conditioning are balanced in different ways in placebo analgesia, and this balance is crucial for the activation of opioid or nonopioid systems.
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