# Learning of Causal Observable Functions for Koopman-DFL Lifting Linearization of Nonlinear Controlled Systems and Its Application to Excavation Automation

@article{SSelby2021LearningOC, title={Learning of Causal Observable Functions for Koopman-DFL Lifting Linearization of Nonlinear Controlled Systems and Its Application to Excavation Automation}, author={Nicholas S. Selby and H. Harry Asada}, journal={IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters}, year={2021}, volume={6}, pages={6297-6304} }

Effective and causal observable functions for low-order lifting linearization of nonlinear controlled systems are learned from data by using neural networks. While Koopman operator theory allows us to represent a nonlinear system as a linear system in an infinite-dimensional space of observables, exact linearization is guaranteed only for autonomous systems with no input, and finding effective observable functions for approximation with a low-order linear system remains an open question. Dual…

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