Learning and unlearning fear: a clinical and evolutionary perspective.

  title={Learning and unlearning fear: a clinical and evolutionary perspective.},
  author={Isaac M. Marks and Adolf Tobe{\~n}a},
  journal={Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews},
  volume={14 4},
Many fears, phobias and rituals seem to arise from prepared phylogenetic mechanisms which favor old over new evolutionary dangers and affect the rules of aversive learning which govern the acquisition of fear. Recent developments in several forms of aversive learning (sensitization, conditioning, extinction, observational learning) can improve them as paradigms of the acquisition, spread and maintenance of normal and clinical fears. The most reliable treatment for phobias and rituals is… CONTINUE READING
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