Learning and selective attention

  title={Learning and selective attention},
  author={Peter Dayan and Sham M. Kakade and P. Read Montague},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
  volume={3 Suppl 1},
Selective attention involves the differential processing of different stimuli, and has widespread psychological and neural consequences. Although computational modeling should offer a powerful way of linking observable phenomena at different levels, most work has focused on the relatively narrow issue of constraints on processing resources. By contrast, we consider statistical and informational aspects of selective attention, divorced from resource constraints, which are evident in animal… 
Attention, Learning, and the Value of Information
Attention, prediction and sequence learning : roles of the cholinergic basal forebrain and the retrosplenial cortex
A novel set of behavioral studies were conducted to investigate neurobiological processes that underlie selective attention and visuospatial sequence learning and provide initial support for a cholinergic role the regulation of Bayesian-like inference by regulating the balance of expectations and sensory processing in the brain.
Acetylcholine in cortical inference
Shared Mechanisms of Perceptual Learning and Decision Making
Findings suggest that at least some forms of perceptual learning do not appear to affect the response properties of neurons that represent the sensory evidence, and improved perceptual performance results from changes in how the sensoryevidence is selected and weighed to form the decision.
A computational account of threat-related attentional bias
It is shown that the allocation of visual attention is influenced significantly by aversive value but not by uncertainty, and this relationship is bidirectional in that attention biases value updates for attended stimuli, resulting in heightened value estimates.
Selective attention, working memory, and animal intelligence
ACh, Uncertainty, and Cortical Inference
It is argued that ACh controls the balance between bottom-up inference, influenced by input stimuli, and top-down inference, influence by contextual information, in cortical representational inference.
Posterior parietal cortex is critical for the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of a memory that guides attention for learning
It is found that intact posterior parietal cortex function was essential during the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of an associability memory enhanced by surprising omissions, and discussed in the context of previous findings and additional plausible frontoparietal and subcortical networks.


Statistical models and sensory attention
This work takes one particular case in which activities increase as a result of attention, model its possible statistical underpinning, and relate the model to other attentional suggestions.
Converging operations in the study of visual selective attention
This volume provides a guide to current research in visual selective attention, with a focus on the broad theme of converging operations. It presents four approaches: behavioural studies;
Selective attention gates visual processing in the extrastriate cortex.
The filtering of irrelevant information from the receptive fields of extrastriate neurons may underlie the ability to identify and remember the properties of a particular object out of the many that may be represented on the retina.
A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli with Reinforcement
Overshadowing and blocking are better explained by the choice of an appropriate rule for changing a, such that a decreases to stimuli that signal no change from the probability of reinforcement predicted by other stimuli.
Feature-based attention influences motion processing gain in macaque visual cortex
Non-spatial, feature-based attentional modulation of visual motion processing is demonstrated, and it is shown that attention increases the gain of direction-selective neurons in visual cortical area MT without narrowing the direction-tuning curves.
Processing of expected and unexpected events during conditioning and attention: a psychophysiological theory.
A unified processing framework is suggested wherein attentional and orienting subsystems coexist in a complementary relationship that controls the adaptive self-organization of internal representations in response to expected and unexpected events.
A Neural Substrate of Prediction and Reward
Findings in this work indicate that dopaminergic neurons in the primate whose fluctuating output apparently signals changes or errors in the predictions of future salient and rewarding events can be understood through quantitative theories of adaptive optimizing control.
Neural substrates of latent inhibition: the switching model.
  • I. Weiner
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1990
It is proposed that the preexposed stimulus loses its capacity to affect behavior in conditioning, even though it predicts reinforcement, because the hippocampus inhibits the switching mechanism of the nucleus accumbens via the subiculum-accumbens pathway.
Disruption of Decrements in Conditioned Stimulus Processing by Selective Removal of Hippocampal Cholinergic Input
Results indicate that cholinergic neurons in the MS/VDB play a role in the regulation of CS processing and implicate both rostral (hippocampal-projecting) and caudal (cortical- projecting) regions of the basal forebrain cholinerg system in the modulation of attention.