Learning and memory in honeybees: from behavior to neural substrates.

  title={Learning and memory in honeybees: from behavior to neural substrates.},
  author={Randolf Menzel and Ulrich Muller},
  journal={Annual review of neuroscience},
Learning and memory in honeybees is analyzed on five levels, using a top-down approach. (a) Observatory learning is applied during navigation and dance communication. (b) Local cues at the feeding site are learned associatively. (c) Classical conditioning of the proboscis extension response to olfactory stimuli provides insight into behavioral, neural, and neuropharmacological mechanisms of associative learning. (d) At the neural level, the pathways coding the conditioned and the unconditioned… CONTINUE READING
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