Learning Without Human Expertise: A Case Study of the Double Dummy Bridge Problem

@article{Mossakowski2009LearningWH,
  title={Learning Without Human Expertise: A Case Study of the Double Dummy Bridge Problem},
  author={Krzysztof Mossakowski and Jacek Mandziuk},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks},
  year={2009},
  volume={20},
  pages={278-299}
}
Artificial neural networks, trained only on sample deals, without presentation of any human knowledge or even rules of the game, are used to estimate the number of tricks to be taken by one pair of bridge players in the so-called double dummy bridge problem (DDBP). Four representations of a deal in the input layer were tested leading to significant differences in achieved results. In order to test networks' abilities to extract knowledge from sample deals, experiments with additional inputs… CONTINUE READING
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