Bayesian Unsupervised Batch and Online Speaker Adaptation of Activation Function Parameters in Deep Models for Automatic Speech Recognition
This work presents a broad study on the adaptation of neural network acoustic models by means of learning hidden unit contributions (LHUC) ---a method that linearly re-combines hidden units in a speaker- or environment-dependent manner using small amounts of unsupervised adaptation data. We also extend LHUC to a speaker adaptive training (SAT) framework that leads to a more adaptable DNN acoustic model, working both in a speaker-dependent and a speaker-independent manner, without the requirements to maintain auxiliary speaker-dependent feature extractors or to introduce significant speaker-dependent changes to the DNN structure. Through a series of experiments on four different speech recognition benchmarks (TED talks, Switchboard, AMI meetings, and Aurora4) comprising 270 test speakers, we show that LHUC in both its test-only and SAT variants results in consistent word error rate reductions ranging from 5% to 23% relative depending on the task and the degree of mismatch between training and test data. In addition, we have investigated the effect of the amount of adaptation data per speaker, the quality of unsupervised adaptation targets, the complementarity to other adaptation techniques, one-shot adaptation, and an extension to adapting DNNs trained in a sequence discriminative manner.